ATP generation

ATP generation - Cellular Pathways that Harvest Chemical...

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7 Cellular Pathways that Harvest Chemical Energy
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7 Cellular Pathways that Harvest Chemical Energy Energy and Electrons from Glucose Glycolysis: From Glucose to Pyruvate Pyruvate Oxidation The Citric Acid Cycle The Respiratory Chain: Electrons, Protons, and ATP Production • Fermentation: ATP from Glucose, without O 2 Contrasting Energy Yields Relationships between Metabolic Pathways Regulating Energy Pathways
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7 Energy and Electrons from Glucose • The sugar glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is the most common form of energy molecule. Cells obtain energy from glucose by the chemical process of oxidation in a series of metabolic pathways.
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7 Energy and Electrons from Glucose Principles governing metabolic pathways: Metabolic pathways are formed by complex chemical transformations which occur in separate reactions. Each reaction in the pathway is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Metabolic pathways are similar in all organisms. In eukaryotes, many metabolic pathways are compartmentalized in organelles. The operation of each metabolic pathway can be regulated by the activities of key enzymes.
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7 Energy and Electrons from Glucose When burned in a flame, glucose releases heat, carbon dioxide, and water. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + energy The same equation applies for the biological, metabolic use of glucose.
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7 Energy and Electrons from Glucose About half of the energy from glucose is collected in ATP. 2200 G for the complete conversion of glucose is –686 kcal/mol. The reaction is therefore highly exergonic , and it drives the endergonic formation of ATP.
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7 Energy and Electrons from Glucose Three metabolic processes are used in the breakdown of glucose for energy: Glycolysis Cellular respiration Fermentation
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Figure 7.1 Energy for Life
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7 Energy and Electrons from Glucose Glycolysis produces some usable energy and two molecules of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate . Glycolysis begins glucose metabolism in all cells. • Glycolysis does not require O 2 ; it is an anaerobic metabolic process.
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7 Energy and Electrons from Glucose Cellular respiration uses O 2 and occurs in aerobic (oxygen-containing) environments. • Pyruvate is converted to CO 2 and H 2 O. The energy stored in covalent bonds of pyruvate is used to make ATP molecules.
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7 Energy and Electrons from Glucose Fermentation does not involve O 2 . It is an anaerobic process. Pyruvate is converted into lactic acid or ethanol. Breakdown of glucose is incomplete; less energy is released than by cellular respiration.
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7 Energy and Electrons from Glucose Redox reactions transfer the energy of electrons. A gain of one or more electrons or hydrogen
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course BIO 188 taught by Professor Capco during the Fall '08 term at ASU.

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ATP generation - Cellular Pathways that Harvest Chemical...

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