Final Review - Kings Gardens/Museum of Natural History...

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King’s Gardens/Museum of Natural History Period: 1635, mid 17 th century Nationality: France Field: Significance: Originally founded by Louis XIII. It was the French monarchy founding an institution of learning apart from universities to allow the kings to have control. It was the main repository for the natural history collection of France. Lamrack and Cuvier were professors there. The institution survived the French Rev. but it became renamed. The organization shifted from hierarchical to jointly run by 8-9 professors. Became more democratic with its basis in biology. The museum's aims were to instruct the public, put together collections and conduct scientific research. Paris Academy of Sciences Period: mid 17 th century Nationality: French Field: Significance: Founded by King Louis XIV through Colbert with the purpose to encourage and protect French science. It consisted of a small number of members specifically chosen by the government from various fields of science. It was split up into 2 categories: Mathematical and Physical Sciences (all science based on observation). So there was some degree of specialization. The Academy reviewed applications for patents. Antoine Lavosier was able to keep the academy running until late 18 th century but the Academy was attacked as it was seen to be closely associated with the monarchy. Institute of France Period: Late 18 century Nationality: French Field: Significance: The Directory (was very influenced by enlightenment) came to power and set up the institute of France. It became the top of French national cultural life. It was split up into three classes: Natural Sciences (given the most importance), Moral and Political Science, and Arts and Letters. The Directory government reaffirmed the value of science and the Institute became at the top of the French Scientific World. Ecoles Period: Late 18 th century Nationality: French Field: Significance: Mid 1790s in Paris during French Rev. To train technical experts, doctors, engineers, pharmacists, vets, and teacher, surgeons. The immediate cause was the war and there was a shortage of technical experts that were needed by the army. The urgency of the war. The old Regime schools were used as a base to build the ecoles but they brought in some of the leading scientists of time as professors. Important about the history of the organization of science in France. Later of the Scientists could have a social position in the Ecole. Primary role of the scientists was as a lecturer/teacher not to research. Research was meant to be done on private time. Big explosion of textbooks during this time because Scientists had to…. . Gymnasium Period: early 19 th century Nationality: German Field: Significance: In the early 19 th century after Prussia was defeated by Napoleon a rule arose that primary education would be compulsory for all men. The best students were encouraged to go onto secondary education in the Gymnasiums (German Academic High School). Teaching in Gymnasiums was based
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2009 for the course HISTORY 30b taught by Professor Lesch during the Spring '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Final Review - Kings Gardens/Museum of Natural History...

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