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16-1.Acids and bases

16-1.Acids and bases - Chapter 16 Acids and Bases...

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Acids and Bases Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Powerpoint slides modified from BLB text Powerpoint prepared by John D. Bookstaver, St. Charles Community College
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Acids and Bases Some Definitions Arrhenius Acid: Proton donor, H + HCl ( aq ) ----> H + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) Base: Hydroxide donor, - OH NaOH ( aq ) ----> Na + ( aq ) + - OH ( aq )
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Acids and Bases Some Definitions Brønsted–Lowry Acid: Proton donor HNO 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) ----> H 3 O + ( aq ) + NO 3 - ( aq ) Base: Proton acceptor NH 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) NH 4 + ( aq ) + - OH ( aq )
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Acids and Bases Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in - ide , change the ending to - ic acid and add the prefix hydro - : HCl: hydrochloric acid HBr: hydrobromic acid HI: hydroiodic acid
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Acids and Bases Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in - ate , change the ending to - ic acid : HClO 3 : chloric acid HClO 4 : perchloric acid
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Acids and Bases Acid Nomenclature If the anion in the acid ends in - ite , change the ending to - ous acid : HClO: hypochlorous acid HClO 2 : chlorous acid
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Acids and Bases What Happens When an Acid Dissolves in Water? Water acts as a base and abstracts H + from the acid to create the hydronium ion.
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Acids and Bases Strong vs. Weak Acids The extent to which the reaction goes to completion is a measure of the strength of the acid. HCl is a strong acid. HF is a weak acid. HCl ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) ----> H 3 O + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) HF ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + F - ( aq )
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Acids and Bases Acids (Table 4.2) There are only seven strong acids: HCl HBr HI HNO 3 H 2 SO 4 HClO 3 HClO 4 A strong acid ionizes completely in water and is a strong electrolyte.
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Acids and Bases Bases (Table 4.2) A strong base ionizes completely in water. The strong bases are the soluble salts of hydroxide ion: Alkali metals Calcium Strontium Barium
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Acids and Bases Polyprotic Acids Sulfuric acid is a diprotic acid. H 2 SO 4 ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) ----> H 3 O + ( aq ) + HSO 4 - ( aq ) HSO 4 - ( aq ) + H 2 O ( l ) H 3 O + ( aq ) + SO 4 2- ( aq ) Only H 2 SO 4 is a strong acid. HSO 4 - is a weak acid in the second acid-base reaction.
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Acids and Bases Neutralization Reactions Generally, when solutions of a strong acid and a strong base are combined, the products are a salt and water.
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