Ch1Slides

Ch1Slides - Chapter 1: Critical Thinking Chapter 1 Outline...

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Chapter 1: Critical Thinking
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Chapter 1 Outline Limits of Common Sense The Scientific Attitude and Method Statistical Analysis
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It’s all just common sense… Opposites attract The pen is mightier than the sword Absence makes the heart grow fonder
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Can be ______ Occurs _____________ “There’s no reason for anyone to have a computer in their own home.” -president of Digital Equipment Company (1977)
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Errors in Common Sense Hindsight Bias Belief, after learning an _____, that you _____ what the outcome would be Overconfidence _____estimating the _______ of beliefs & judgments
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Well, no… Sometimes common sense is right Best to back it up with ____ Are you saying my common sense is useless???
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The Scientific Attitude Curious skepticism Ask _________ How do you know? Humility Value ____ more than our own ideas Critical thinking thinking ______ blindly accepting arguments and conclusions
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“What good fortune for those in power that people do not ___” – Adolf Hitler
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The Scientific Method: Steps Observations Theory Organized explanation of __________ Hypothesis ________ prediction Test Replicate ______ing the test
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The Scientific Method Operational definition Description of how the variable is _______ Examples: hungry, tired
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Research Strategies 1) Descriptive 2) Experimental
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1. Descriptive Research What does it involve? ______________________ Three common types: _____________ ____________________ ___________
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a. Case Study What it is: In-depth study of ____________ Example: HM 1953 – Hippocampus removed during surgery Afterwards: couldn’t learn new names, still remember old ones
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Pros: _______________ - easy to follow Increases understanding of ______________ or things that can’t __________________ Cons: Results could be due to almost anything No ____________ Only one ____________
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b. Naturalistic Observation What it is: Multiple __________ of multiple ___________ Observation take place in _____________ ______________ by researcher Example: Explore differences in public displays of affection between gay and straight couples Go to a public place Record what different _____________
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Pros: Good for ________ what people do Participants not biased by _____________ Cons: Lack of _________ Requires a lot of ______
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What it is: _______________, ___________ Example: How tired are you right now? Rate how happy you are on a scale of 0-5.
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Ch1Slides - Chapter 1: Critical Thinking Chapter 1 Outline...

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