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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7: Learning Chapter Chapter 7 Outline Chapter Associative Learning Classical Conditioning- learning to associate 2 Classical or more stimuli or Operant Conditioning- learning to associate a Operant behavior with a consequence behavior Observational Learning Learning Learning Relatively permanent Relatively change in organism’s behavior due to experience behavior Associative learningAssociative learning that certain events occur together Conditioning- the process of Conditioninglearning associations learning Classical Conditioning Classical Pavlov- physiologist studying dogs’ salivation Behaviorism– believe that psychology should study Behaviorism– only observable, objective behavior only Classical conditioning- learning to associate stimuli Classical Conditioning Classical Unconditioned stimulus (US) response (UR) Stimulus that automatically produces a response automatic response to a stimulus Unconditioned Conditioned stimulus (CS) response (CR) Originally neutral stimulus that comes to produce a conditioned response Learned response to previously neutral stimulus stimulus Conditioned Classical Conditioning In Pavlov’s study… US - food UR - salvation CS – bell- tone/noise CR – salivation to the bell Classical Conditioning Classical Watson- began behavioral Watson- research with humans research Little Albert US, UR, CS, CR? Found that order is important
• CS first, then US Terms Terms Generalization– learned association Generalization– generalizes to other similar stimuli generalizes between CS & other stimuli between Discrimination– learned ability to distinguish Discrimination– AcquisitionAcquisition Terms Terms Initial learning stage in classical conditioning
• Present ___________ & get ____ What happens if CS occurs repeatedly What without US? Extinction- CR diminishes or disappears Reappearance of an (extinguished) CR after a Reappearance pause pause Spontaneous RecoverySpontaneous Classical Conditioning: Updates Classical Cognition plays a role in conditioning Biology prepares us to learn certain things Conditioning may occur even when Conditioning response is delayed response Conditioning can be used in Conditioning therapy therapy Operant Conditioning Operant Operant Conditioning Associate a response with a consequence Act according to reward or punishment Law of effectLaw
Rewarded behaviors are more likely to occur Unrewarded behaviors are less likely to occur Chosen behaviors Classical vs. Operant Classical Similarities Acquisition Generalization Discrimination Extinction Spontaneous recovery automatic vs. chosen behaviors Associating stimuli vs. behavior and Associating consequence consequence Differences Operant Conditioning Operant Skinner (psych) ShapingShaping- procedure in which reinforcers gradually guide behavior toward desired actions desired Terms * Terms Reinforcement– a stimulus that increases Reinforcement– the likelihood of the prior response the Positive
• Give a desirable stimulus (money/ high five) Negative
• Removing an undesirable stimulus (buckling seatbelt Removing to get rid of beeping noice) to Primary vs. Secondary
Primary- naturally satisfying (food and water) Secondary- money, praise, Secondary- Terms * Terms Punishment– a stimulus that decreases the Punishment– likelihood of the prior response likelihood Positive
• Giving an undesirable stimulus (ticket) Negative
• removing a desirable stimulus (taking a toy) Schedules of Reinforcement * Schedules Continuous Reinforcement Partial Reinforcement Schedules Certain amount Changing amount # of of responses responses Length of Length time time Fixed Ratio Fixed (car salesman) (car Fixed Interval Fixed (biweekly pay) (biweekly Variable Ratio Variable (fishing) (fishing) Variable Interval (e-bay account) Operant Conditioning: Updates Operant Cognition Role of expectations Biology teaches us to do certain behaviors
(bird flapping wings) (bird Biological Predispositions Latent Learning Learning that occurs but its not apparent until Learning needed or incentive. Operant Conditioning: Updates Be careful with reinforcement Be Operant Conditioning: Updates Be careful when using reinforcement & Be punishment punishment Watch what you reinforce “Rewards” may decrease interest
• Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic- Wanting to do a behavior just for the sake of Intrinsicdoing the behavior- perform behavior just to do it. doing • Ex: personal accomplishment Extrinsic- when you want to do something just for the Extrinsicreward. reward. • ex: get money for a’s Punishment may just teach discrimination. Observational Learning Observational Learn by observing Bandura (researcher) ModelingModeling Observing and imitating a Observing behavior behavior Observational Learning: Updates Observational We observe behavior & consequences We choose what we imitate Observing doesn’t cause behaviors/modeling ...
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- Spring '09