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Chem4711%28NoteSet1%29

Chem4711%28NoteSet1%29 - Biochemistry(Chem 4711 Rob Kuchta...

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Biochemistry (Chem 4711) Rob Kuchta 2-7027 [email protected] Chem 257 Office hours Monday, Wednesday, Friday 10-11 Or by appointment. Or stop by, and I will be happy to chat. Grading 3 Midterms 1 Final (= 2 midterms) Homeworks (= 1 midterm) Improvement is highly valued. Tests are cumulative. Notes, etc. Everything will be posted on web. Much of what I cover in lecture is not in notes.
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Biochemistry - the chemistry of biology Living organisms: Proteins (Structure, catalysis, regulation) Carbohydrates (Structure, energy, regulation) Lipids (Structure, energy, regulation) Metals (Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn, Na, … Ni, Mo, W - catalysis, regulation) Small organic molecules (vitamins, cofactors, toxins - catalysis, regulation) Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA - structure, catalysis, regulation) YOU - all of you fits on <1 DVD Codes for 20,000 - 30,000 proteins Around 250,000 (!) small RNA molecules DNA - 4 bases, strokes in Asian languages Coding DNA - 3 bases code for one amino acid, letters in a word Protein - word Small RNAs - modifying word Post-translationally modify protein - modify word
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Motivation: Human health (and getting to know you) Top ten killers in the world (2004) 4 million - lower respiratory infections (pneumonia) 3 million - HIV/AIDS 1 - 5 million - malaria 2.2 million - diarrhea 2 million - tuberculosis 0.5 million - measles 0.2 - 0.3 million - whooping cough, pertussis 0.2 million - tetanus 0.2 million - meningitis 0.16 million - syphilis Closer to home: (2002) 476,009 Americans under 85 died of cancer 450,637 died of heart disease
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Drug development Biology Biochemistry Chemistry Clinic Patient Biochemistry as a central hub in drug development
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Life is an information transfer process Generation to generation (DNA, etc.) Organisms to organism (photons, chemical, sound) Cell to Cell (chemical, electricity, etc.) Intracellular (chemical, electricity) Living organisms must interact with the environment Take in food (high G) Use food to do work (grow, divide, etc.) Excrete low G compounds. Life is a series of highly regulated, highly catalyzed, and usually simple chemical reactions. Living organisms are nothing more than software and hardware.
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Thermodynamics - First Law “In this house we obey the laws of thermodynamics.” Homer Simpson First Law : For any physical or chemical change, the total amount of energy in the universe remains constant. Energy may change form or it may be transported from one region to another, but it cannot be created.
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Thermodynamics - Second Law Second Law: In all natural processes, the entropy of the universe increases. If N = 10 23 , the probability that the number of molecules on the left differs from the number of molecules on the right by 0.00000001% is 10 -434 .
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Thermodynamics - Second Law Relationship of entropy and temperature: -any system becomes more disordered as the temperature rises
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Thermodynamics - Gibbs free energy G: Gibbs free energy = amount of energy available to do work (at constant pressure and temperature) if G < 0, then reaction is exergonic (favored) if G > 0, then reaction is endergonic (not favored) if G = 0, then at equilibrium
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Thermodynamics -
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