3 Mendel - Introduction to Mendelian Genetics Key points...

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Introduction to Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel (1822--1884) Key points • Genes are discrete particles – Inherited intact through the generations – In a diploid, each offspring gets a particle from each parent, with the transmitted particle chosen at random from the two copies in each parent – Segregation of alleles – Independent assortment of alleles at different loci Worked in the Augustinian Monastery in Brno (now in the Czech Republic) The small monastery garden used by Mendel Published his work in 1866 in the Proceedings of the Brno Natural Science Society Work completely ignored until his ideas independently rediscovered by several groups in 1900. Mendel examine seven traits in the common Garden pea As we will see, seven was a very lucky number! Mendel crossed pure-breeding lines (homozygotes)
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• The two parental lines to be crossed are denoted P 1 and P 2 • First filial generation F 1 = P 1 x P 2 • Second filial generation F 2 = F 1 x F 1 • First backcross B 1 = F 1 x P 1 • Second backcross B 2 = F 1 x P 2 Monohybrid Crosses • Crosses following a single (mono) trait • Consider seed color, Yellow vs Green • Mendel crossed pure-breeding Yellow (P 1 ) with pure-breeding Green (P 2 ) – F 1 were all yellow – F 2 were 3/4 yellow, 1/4 green – Segregation of green out of yellow F2 destroys bleeding theory of inheritance Green vs. Yellow cross • Mendel also found that the P 1 , F 1 , and F 2 yellow parents behaved differently! – P1 yellow x P2 (green) --> all yellow – F1 yellow x P2 (green) --> 1/2 yel, 1/2 grn – F2 yellow x P2 (green) --> 2/3 yel, 1/3 grn • How did Mendel account for these data? • Let’s see this following the trait used in the
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3 Mendel - Introduction to Mendelian Genetics Key points...

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