03_behavior genetics '09 - 9/8/2009 1 An instinct, unlike...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/8/2009 1 An instinct, unlike learned behavior, is a behavior under genetic control. Discuss. Behavior Genetics Behavior Genetics a. Do genes encode behavior? b. Do genes encode learning? c. How many genes encode a behavior? d. Can a gene have more than one effect? e. Do individual differences in behavior in nature reflect genetic differences? f. What is the role of genetic variation in evolution by natural selection? a. Do genes encode behavior? Yes! a. Do genes encode behavior? Yes! building a better honey bee In late 1800s, Austrian tried to breed hard-working but good-natured honey bee. He crossed Italian strain (gentle) with German strain (hard-working) and Yes! Gregor Mendel! Yes! Gregor Mendel! obtained an extremely aggressive bee! Do genes encode behavior? YES! Do genes encode behavior? YES! Drosophila Mutants as a Case Study intensity Drosophila males sing to females. cac mutants sing poorly and shout to boot. sonogram time Some Some Drosophila Drosophila behavior mutants behavior mutants eag ether-a-go-go kdn knockdown per period fru fruitless fru fruitless qtc quick to court spin spinster sk stuck obtained by forward genetics in which mutants are screened in behavioral assays. forward genetics seeks to define genetic basis of a particular phenotype* reverse genetic reverse genetics seeks to define effect of a DNA sequence on the phenotype; newer approach *phenotype = an observable property of an organism 9/8/2009 2 Reverse Genetics: Knockout Technique Reverse Genetics: Knockout Technique Use gene targeting to knock out a specific gene, or even just one transcript of a gene. Observe effect of knockout on animals behavior. fosB+ mice show normal maternal care. fosB- mice are indifferent to pups. fosB locus: Mode of action fosB locus: Mode of action stimuli from pups integrated in hypothalamus fosB alleles activated in preoptic area (POA) fosB protein produced fosB leads to alterations in POA neural circuits maternal care A good introduction to the knockout technique: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/Courses/genomics/method/homolrecomb.html#KO Prairie Vole Males are monogamous, having a single partner Reverse Genetics: Viral Techniques Reverse Genetics: Viral Techniques Meadow Vole Males are polygynous, having multiple partners Vasopressin is a hormone thought to promote pair bonds and social behavior in voles. Prairie voles show greater levels of V1a vasopressin receptor in the ventral pallidum of brain. (as indicated by large dark regions) Viral vector-mediated gene transfer: Virus used to vector V1a gene to meadow voles. Data also shown in Figure 1.7 of text 9/8/2009 3 Partial list of Drosophila learning mutants dnc dunce rut rutabaga b. Do genes encode learning? YES! b. Do genes encode learning? YES!...
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03_behavior genetics '09 - 9/8/2009 1 An instinct, unlike...

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