202 Lecture 8 - Formation of the Solar System Survey of the...

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Formation of the Solar System Survey of the Solar System: o Sun (99.85% mass of Solar System) o 8 planets (angular momentum) o ~100 moons o Thousands of asteroids, o Millions of icy bodies, comets, Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud o Meteorids, Interplanetary media o Astronomical unit (AU) Average Earth-Sun distance 1.5x108 km o Planets orbit the Sun in ellipses. o All the planetary orbits lie roughly in the same plane. o All planets move around the Sun in the same direction o Planet classification: size, density and atmosphere Terrestrial planets Near, small, more dense Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars Mostly rocky materials, metallic nickel and iron Giant planets Far, large, less dense Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune Mostly hydrogen, helium and methane Pluto True planet? Not anymore! Composition (Mass): o Sun: 99.85% (~75% Hydrogen,~25 Helium) o Planets: 0.135% (H, He, Heavier Elements) o Jupiter alone has more mass than the rest of the Solar System o Comets: 0.01% o Satellites: 0.00005% o Minor Planets: 0.0000002% o Meteoroids: 0.0000001% o Interplanetary Medium: 0.0000001% Mass, Volume, Density: o Mass: amount of material o Volume: space filled by the material o Density: Amount of mass per unit volume o Density depends on the material.
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o Average density of a celestial body gives information about its composition Measuring Masses and Volumes: o
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