Fungi - What characteristic would be absent in the Fungi A)...

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Unformatted text preview: What characteristic would be absent in the Fungi A) B) C) D) 9+2 flagella Chitinous cell walls Spores Heterotrophic feeding E) All would be present 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 0% 4 30 0% 5 Kingdom Fungi (Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, feeding by external digestion) Rigid cell walls of chitin or cellulose Hyphae = tubular thread-like cells Mycellium = mat-like network of hyphae Which taxon is most closely related to Fungi? A) B) C) D) E) Animals Plants Slime molds Green algae Cyanobacteria 30 Plants Animals Fungi 1 Billion Years Ago Protista Four Major Groups of Fungi 1) Chytridiomycota --simplest fungi & with flagellated cells in the life cycle --e.g. skin parasites on amphibians & maybe causing their world-wide decline. Previously grouped with the Protista Four Major Groups of Fungi 1) Chytridiomycota Note: both male & female gametes have flagella & so do the zygote & the spores! Four Major Groups of Fungi 2) Zygomycota Bread Mold fungus Four Major Groups of Fungi 2) Zygomycota Four Major Groups of Fungi 3) Ascomycota (= sac fungi; produce spores in sacs= asci) Cup fungi Four Major Groups of Fungi 3) Ascomycota e.g. Yeast C6H12O6 Sugar 2CH3CH20H + CO2 + ATP Ethyl alcohol What is the process by which yeast use sugar & release alcohol, carbon dioxide and produce ATP ? A) Gycolysis (fermentation) B) Nitrogen fixation C) Autotrophism D) Krebs cycle E) None of the above 0% 0% 0% 0% 45 0% Four Major Groups of Fungi 3) Ascomycota (= sac fungi; produce spores in sacs= asci) e.g. Morel Four Major Groups of Fungi 3) Ascomycota e.g. truffles (Underground fungi) Truffles The record price paid for a single white truffle was set in December 2007, when Macau casino owner Stanley Ho paid $330,000 (165,000) for a specimen weighing 1.5kg (3.3lb), discovered by Luciano Savini and his dog Rocco Four Major Groups of Fungi 4) Basidiomycota (= club fungi; produce spores in clubshaped structures= basidia) Four Major Groups of Fungi 4) Basidiomycota (= club fungi; produce spores in clubshaped structures= basidia) Four Major Groups of Fungi 4) Basidiomycota Four Major Groups of Fungi 4) Basidiomycota Polypores Four Major Groups of Fungi 4) Basidiomycota Coral Fungus What is the next stage in the life cycle of a mushroom fungus after the plus (+) and minus (-) strains of hyphae fuse in the soil? A) Mitosis B) Meiosis C) Fertilization D) Dikaryotic hyphae form E) Ascus development 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 0% 4 45 0% 5 4) Basidiomycota Four Major Groups of Fungi Types of Nutrition in Fungi Heterotrophic 1) Parasitic (e.g. athlete's foot, ring worm, jock itch; Chestnut Blight; Potato Blight) 2) Predators (150 species of fungi trap and digest soil nematodes using adhesive knobs or loops) 3) Saprotrophic (= decomposers consuming dead organisms by external digestion) 4) Mutualistic (e.g. ants & "fungal farming," lichens & mycorrhizae) Mycorrhizae = Symbiotic fungi living within the root system of plants. They gain photosynthetic products from plants They greatly increase the surface area of roots (101000 times) & increase the uptake of water & minerals (especially nitrogen & phosphorous). The fungi take in plant carbohydrates in exchange. Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae Many plant partners The fungal network allows plants to exchange nutrients. Resource sharing by fungal networks. More than 400 plants parasitize the system. They lack chlorophyll and don't photosynthesize but rely on carbon from the mycorrhizae. (e.g. some orchids) Two Types of Mycorrhizae Different Reproductive Structures of the Phyla of Fungi yt Ch om i id r yc a ot yg Z om y ot c a om sc A co y ta s id Ba my io ota c Flagellated protozoan yt Ch om i id r yc a ot yg Z om y ot c a om sc A co y ta s id Ba my io ota c Earliest fossil fungi occur at 1.2 BYA Probably colonized land long before plants Flagellated protozoan Clicker Question: Where would you place the Ascomycota? Flagellates A B C D 45 0 % 1 0 % 2 0 % 3 0 % 4 Clicker Question: Where would you place the Ascomycota? Chytridiomycota Flagellates Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Clicker Question: If someone answered "D" should we mark it wrong? Flagellates A) B) Yes No 0 % 1 45 0 % 2 3 4 Next Lecture: ANIMALS & THE CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION ...
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