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Unformatted text preview: WHEN I GIVE THE SIGNAL HOLD YOUR BREATH AS LONG AS YOU CAN. I will count the time off. When you can't hold your breath any longer, Sit down and punch in the time in seconds that you held your breath. It will be in increments of 10 seconds How long did you hold your breath? < 10 sec. 2. 1120 sec. 3. 2130 sec. 4. 3140 sec. 5. 4150 sec. 6. 5160 sec. 7. 6170 sec. 8. 7180 sec. 9. 8190 sec. 10. > 90 sec. 1. 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100 0% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 PROKARYOTES EUBACTERIA & ARCHAEBACTERIA What is NOT true about Prokaryotes? 1) They have ribosomes 2) They are generally single cells 3) They lack a nuclear membrane 4) Some of them are photosynthetic 5) Some of them have DNA that is not attached to the chromosome. 6) All of the above are true 0% 1 0% 2 0% 3 0% 4 45 0% 5 0% 6 WHAT ARE PROKARYOTES? Single cells No nuclear membrane Single circular chromosome No organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, or internal membranes ~60 Phyla of Prokaryotes CLASSIFICATION LUCA= Last Universal Common Ancestor Comparing Eubacteria & Archaebacteria CLASSIFICATION LUCA= Last Universal Common Ancestor Domain Archaea. Kingdom Archaebacteria Includes Extremophiles e.g. Methanogens e.g. Halophiles e.g. Thermophiles Kingdom: Eubacteria (Bacteria & Blue-green "Algae") Simplest organisms Smallest Oldest (3.5 BYA) Originated in an anaerobic environment (i.e. without O2) Evolutionary Sequence Prokaryotes Reproduction in Prokaryotes This is not mitosis Reproduction in Prokaryotes Reproduction in Prokaryotes A) B) C) D) E) Viruses swapping DNA with each other A form of chromosomal mutation Bacteria incorporating free DNA into their genome Viruses transporting DNA from one host organism to another host organism. None of the above From a previous lecture: what is transduction? 45 Remember This? And This? Variability in Prokaryotes via Mutation--high rate/unit time because of high speed of reproduction. Conjugation Transduction Transformation DNA is transferred between organisms Lateral transfer of genes Bacteria sp1 Bacteria Bacteria Fish Bacteria Bacteria Bacteria sp2 Fungi (yeast) Plants Bacteria Insects Nematode worms Greatly speeds the rate of evolution What is the Evolutionary Sequence of the Prokaryotes? Hints from the energy transfer systems. 2 types of Energy Capture: 1) Heterotrophic= breaking down organic molecules to get energy (ATP) 2) Autotrophic= using nonorganic molecules (self feeders) to get energy. a) Chemotrophic = chemosynthetic b) Phototrophic = photosynthetic Most organisms have this gycolysis scheme Suggesting it evolved early Note: Only small amts energy Released. Not a complete breakdown of organic matter. This occurs in the cytoplasm Pyruvic Acid Pyruvic acid (3C) Note: This occurs in the mitochondria KREBS CYCLE Pyruvic acid (3C) Lots of ATP is released CO2 & H2 O are released O2 needed Chemosynthesis= Using inorganic chemical reactions to generate energy (ATP) 2. Photosynthesis in Plants H20 + CO2 C6H1206 + 02 + ATP Light Photosynthesis in Plants H20 + CO2 C6H1206 + 02 + ATP Uses chlorophyll a and b to capture light in the chloroplast 2 photosystems ATP H2O is source of H+ and e 02 is released Light 2. Photosynthesis Blue-Green Bacteria ("Algae") H20 + CO2 C6H1206 + 02 + ATP Same as plants Light 2. Photosynthesis Blue-Green Bacteria ("Algae") Same as plants except: Only Ch a, no Ch b No chloroplasts but Ch a is on internal membranes in cytoplasm Does best in low 02 (10%) Can use H2S instead of H20 2. Photosynthesis in Bacteria Bacteriochlorophyll No chloroplasts 1 Photosystem H S is source of H+ and e 2 Sulfur is released Anaerobic process No O 2 What is the best evidence that Eukaryotes evolved in an aerobic world? A) B) C) D) E) They have ribosomes that are not affected by antibiotics They are more complex than Prokaryotes They have mitochondria They have meiosis which requires O2 They have gills and lungs 45 Which organisms are responsible for starting the O2 revolution? A) B) C) D) E) Archeobacteria Green bacteria Plants Cyanobacteria Green algae 30 3.5 BYA ~2.5 BYA 3.5 BYA ...
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