Evolution by Acquired Characteristics

Evolution by Acquired Characteristics - Mutations Abrupt...

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Mutations Abrupt changes in the genetic material occurring typically during cell division in gametes. Changes in autosomal cells are irrelevant Types of mutations 1. Structural changes in Chromosomes a. Loss or duplication of whole genes deletions duplications b. Changes in gene arrangement
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internally generated fragments 1. SINE = Short interspersed nuclear element 13 2.LINE = Long 20 possible fragments (Parasites?) 3.LTR Long terminal Repeat 8 4. DNA transpositions 3 complete reversal of a long sequence Transposition % genome These transposed elements are replicated and can be relocated to other Regions of the same chromosome or different chromosomes. Importance in increasing variability
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2 . Numerical changes in chromosomes a. Aneuploidy = addition of one or more chromosomes; b. Down’s syndrome = extra chrom. # 21
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b . Polyploidy = multiple copies of the entire genome Characteristic of several plant species e.g. Banana can be 2n = 22; 4n = 44 5n = 55; 7n =77 . Extra sex chromosomes xxy, xyy, xxyy, xxxy
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3. Gene (point) mutations = Nucleotide changes 1. SUBSTITIONS Pr (aa) VAL ASP PRO PRO PHE RNA(m) GUA AAU CCU CCU UUU DNA(t) CAT TTA GGA GGA AAA DNA(t) CAT TTG GGA GGA G AA RNA(m) GUA AAC CCU CCU C UU Pr (aa) VAL ASP PRO PRO LEU
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Gene (point) mutations = Nucleotide changes 2. ADDITIONS ---- lead to frame-shifts Pr (aa) VAL ASP PRO PRO PHE RNA(m) GUA AAU CCU CCU UUU DNA(t) CAT TTA GGA GGA AAA DNA (t) CAT TTA T GG AGG AAA A RNA (m) GUA AAU A CC UCC UUU U Pr (aa) VAL ASP THR SER PHE ^
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Evolution by Acquired Characteristics - Mutations Abrupt...

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