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Selection-Sexual and Kin Selection, Species Formation

Selection-Sexual and Kin Selection, Species Formation -...

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Types of Parasites Most Phyla have parasitic members All organisms have a multitude of parasites Highly specialized organ systems and life cycles Egg to larva to adult Egg to larva to larva to adult Egg to larva to larva to larva to adult Larva and/or adults may free living or parasitic One parasite may have several hosts
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Parasite --- host interactions 1. Host becomes extinct American chestnut tree 2. Parasite becomes extinct --- small pox 3. Co-existence Alternate hosts Parasitic camouflage – African sleeping sickness Co-evolution -- evolving together ---myxoma virus and Australian rabbits
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Parasitism Extinction Co-existence Extinction commensalism No reduction in host fitness mutualism Alternate Hosts Parasitic camouflage Co-Evolution reduced Host death
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Predator --Types 1. Herbivores 2. Carnivores 3. Omnivores 4. Granivores
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Predator --- prey interactions 1. Prey becomes extinct = predator becomes extinct Gause’s experiments Prey: Paramecium sp . Predator: Didinium sp .
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2. Predator becomes extinct prey population explodes Co-existence 1. Local extinction & replacement 2. Predator – prey Cycles 3. Prey switching (buffer species) specialized and generalized predators
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4. Low predator population density 5. Evolutionary “Arms Race” leads to Co-evolution of predators and prey
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Predation Co-existence Extinction Mutualism
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