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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis - Photosynthesis Energy from the Sun 8...

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8 Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun
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8 Photosynthesis: Energy from the Sun Identifying Photosynthetic Reactants and Products The Two Pathways of Photosynthesis: An Overview The Interactions of Light and Pigments The Light Reactions: Electron Transport, Reductions, and Photophosphorylation Making Carbohydrate from CO 2 : The Calvin–Benson Cycle Photorespiration and Its Consequences Metabolic Pathways in Plants
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8 Identifying Photosynthetic Reactants and Products Photosynthesis, the biochemical process by which plants capture energy from sunlight and store it in carbohydrates, is the very basis of life on Earth.
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8 Identifying Photosynthetic Reactants and Products By the 1800s, scientists had learned: Three ingredients are needed for photosynthesis: water, CO 2 , and light. There are two products: carbohydrates and O 2 . The water, which comes primarily from the soil, is transported through the roots to the leaves. The CO 2 is taken in from the air through stomata, or pores, in the leaves.
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Figure 8.1 The Ingredients for Photosynthesis
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8 Identifying Photosynthetic Reactants and Products By 1804, scientists had summarized the overall chemical reaction of photosynthesis: CO 2 + H 2 O + light energy sugar + O 2 More recently, using H 2 O and CO 2 labeled with radioactive isotopes, it has been determined that the actual reaction is: 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O
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8 The Two Pathways of Photosynthesis: An Overview Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of green plant cells and consists of many reactions. Photosynthesis can be divided into two pathways: The light reaction is driven by light energy captured by chlorophyll. It produces ATP and NADPH + H + . The Calvin–Benson cycle does not use light directly. It uses ATP, NADPH + H + , and CO 2 to produce sugars.
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Figure 8.3 An Overview of Photosynthesis (Part 1)
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Figure 8.3 An Overview of Photosynthesis (Part 2)
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Figure 8.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
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8 The Interactions of Light and Pigments When a photon and a pigment molecule meet, one of three things happens: The photon may bounce off, pass through,or be absorbed by the molecule.
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