art test 2

art test 2 - Painting part 1 watercolor For each type of...

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Painting part 1, watercolor For each type of painting, you will be expected to learn the basic ingredients of the paint. All paints have at least two basic ingredients: powdered pigment a binder and all but one type also have: a thinner The first type of paint is watercolor, specifically transparent watercolor, also known as aquarelle. The ingredients are: powdered pigment the binder is gum Arabic, (a type of sap from a tree) the thinner is water. There is another variety of watercolor, an opaque watercolor called gouache (pronounced goo-ahhsh). It has the same ingredients as aquarelle, but adds one more, chalk dust, which makes it opaque. (When the chalk dust REPLACES the powdered pigment, it makes white paint. There is no white paint for transparent watercolor.) Although watercolor paint had been used for some time for book illustrations, the first artist to make complete individual works of art in watercolor was Albrecht Durer, the German artist active at the end of the 15th century and beginning of the 16th century, the same guy who travelled to Italy and brought the ideas of the Renaissance back to Northern Europe with him. Watercolor has advantages including the fact that it is relatively inexpensive (the tubes of paint last a long time, and it is most often painted on paper rather than on canvas or a wooden panel, and paper is cheaper than either of the other surfaces), and it can be cleaned up with water (maybe you'd need a little soap, too). It produces beautiful, clear colors--the transparent watercolor allows the
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paper to shine through the color like a stained glass window--and can produce some attractive, spontaneous effects. Its main disadvantage is that it doesn't allow corrections, so you need to plan ahead, and make sure that the area that you're about to paint won't touch any area that is still wet from prior painting. Painting, part 2, tempera and oil The second type of paint included in Chapter 7 is tempera paint, traditionally egg tempera. Its ingredients are: powdered pigment the binder is egg yolk, the yellow part of an egg the thinner is water. Tempera paint is the basic type of paint used for individual paintings NOT on walls or ceilings, from ancient times to the beginning of the Renaissance. Oil painting begins to be used in the 1400s (the 15th century), and oil paint is much easier to use in many respects than tempera, so egg tempera fell out of favor. Its disadvantages are: 1) it must be painted on a rigid surface, because after it dries, if the surface bends, the paint will crack and fall off; 2) it dries VERY fast, so it doesn't allow corrections, and it is very hard to blend the paint with earlier strokes, so it doesn't lend itself too well to making implied textures, and can have a very linear quality to the painting, and 3) the wooden panel should be treated with a layer of GESSO (plaster and glue) before painting. Its advantages are that it produces lovely, glossy colors that don't fade over time, and you can
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art test 2 - Painting part 1 watercolor For each type of...

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