chemeq - Chemical Equilibrium A Chem1 Reference Text...

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Chemical Equilibrium A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower • Simon Fraser University lower@sfu.ca Contents 1 Chemical change: how far, how fast? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 What is equilibrium? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 Chemical equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 What is a reversible reaction? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 How did Napoleon Bonaparte help discover reversible reactions? . . . . . 4 6 What is the Law of Mass Action?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7 How do we know when a reaction is at equilibrium? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8 What is the LeChâtelier principle? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9 How do changes in temperature affect equilibria? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 10 How do changes in pressure affect equilibria? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 11 What is the Haber process and why is it important? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 12 How can we characterize a chemical equilibrium? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 13 What is the equilibrium quotient?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 14 A visual way of thinking about Q and K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 15 Does everything stop when equilibrium is reached?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 16 What other ways are there of writing equilibrium expressions? . . . . . . . 14 17 Unchanging concentrations in equilibrium expressions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 18 Significance of the numerical value of an equilibrium constant . . . . . . . 16 19 Do equilibrium constants have units? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 20 Equilibrium expressions and the reaction equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 21 Heterogeneous reactions: the vapor pressure of solid hydrates. . . . . . . . 18 22 How can we find the equilibrium constant for a series of reactions?. . . . 19 23 How are equilibrium constants measured?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 24 How can we predict equilibrium compositions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 25 Effects of dilution on an equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 26 Phase distribution equilibria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 © 2001 by Stephen K. Lower Original FrameMaker document last modified 13 March 2003 A Web version of this document is available at http://www.sfu.ca/person/lower/Chem1Text/equilibrium/
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Chemical change: how far, how fast? Page 2 of 28 1 • Chemical change: how far, how fast? Chemical change occurs when the atoms that make up one or more substances rearrange themselves in such a way that new substances are formed. These substances are the compo- nents of the chemical reaction system ; those components which decrease in quantity are called reactants , while those that increase are products . A given chemical reaction system is defined by a balanced net chemical equation which is conventionally written as reactants products Chemical change is one of the two central concepts of chemical science, the other being struc- ture . The very origins of Chemistry itself are rooted in the observations of transformations such as the combustion of wood, the freezing of water, and the winning of metals from their ores that have always been a part of human experience. It was, after all, the quest for some kind of constancy underlying change that led the Greek thinkers of around 200 BC to the idea of elements and later to that of the atom. It would take almost 2000 years for the scien- tific study of matter to pick up these concepts and incorporate them into what would emerge, in the latter part of the 19th century, as a modern view of chemical change.
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