Good notes on Chem_Acids, Bases and Redox Titrations

Good notes on Chem_Acids, Bases and Redox Titrations -...

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Chris Khan 2006 With an aqueous solution: it is a mixture of two or more substances. The solute is present in a smaller amount than the solvent . An electrolyte is a substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water. A nonelectrolyte is a substance that does not conduct electricity when dissolved in water. Water is a polar solvent . When an ionic compound such as NaCl dissolves in water, the Na + and Cl - ions are separated and undergo hydration , in which an ion is surrounded by water molecules arranged in a specific matter. Strong Electrolytes : HCl,HNO 3 , HClO 4 , H 2 SO 4 , NaOH, Ba(OH) 2 . Weak Electrolytes: CH 3 COOH, HF, HNO 2 , NH 3 , H 2 O. Nonelectrolytes : (NH 2 ) 2 CO, CH 3 OH, C 2 H 5 OH, C 6 H 12 O 6 , C 12 H 22 O 11 . Ionization describes the separation of acids and bases into ions. The ionization of something such as acetic acid is written with a double arrow to show that it is a reversible reaction , one in which the reaction can occur in both ways. A precipitation reaction results in the formation of an insoluble product (precipitate). A precipitate is an insoluble solid that separates from the solution. o Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2NaI (aq) PbI 2 (s) + 2NaNO 3 (aq) Solubility is defined as the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature. Soluble compounds : those with 1A metals and NH 4 + , NO 3 - (nitrates), HCO 3 - (bicarbonates), ClO 3 - (chlorates), halides (Cl - , Br - , I - ) [EXCEPT those of Ag + , Hg 2 2+ , Pb 2+ ], and sulfates [EXCEPT those of Ag + , Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ ]. Insoluble compounds : CO 3 2- (carbonates), PO 4 3- (phosphates), CrO 4 2- (chromates), S 2- (sulfides) [EXCEPT those compounds with 1A or the NH 4 + ion] and OH - (hydroxides) [EXCEPT compounds with 1A and the Ba 2+ ion]. The molecular equation is an equation in which the formulas of the compounds are written as though all species existed as molecules or whole units. o Pb 2+ + 2NO 3 - + 2Na + + 2I - PbI 2 + 2Na + + 2NO 3 - In this ionic equation , the Na + and NO 3 - ions are spectator ions and just watch the reaction—they do not change and are not included in the net ionic equation: o Pb 2+ + 2I - PbI 2 Acids ionize in water to produce H + ions and bases ionize to produce OH - ions. Acids are sour, they cause color changes in plant dyes, they react with certain metals (Zn, Mg, Fe) to produce hydrogen gas, they react with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas, and aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity. Bases have a bitter taste, they feel slippery, they cause color changes in plant dyes, and aqueous base solutions conduct electricity. Brønsted
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This note was uploaded on 12/10/2009 for the course CHEM 1111 at Colorado.

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Good notes on Chem_Acids, Bases and Redox Titrations -...

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