Unit%201%20Handout%20-%202009[1]

Unit%201%20Handout%20-%202009[1] - North Carolina State...

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North Carolina State University Department of Food Science CHEMISTRY OF FOOD AND BIOPROCESSED MATERIALS Unit 1 SOLUTION CHEMISTRY, CARBOHYDRATES AND MAILLARD BROWNING Student should be able to: Outcome 1 –define and calculate the following: weight per volume (w/v) or weight per weight (w/w), molecules (moles) per volume (molarity) or per weight (molality), and reactive species per volume (normality). Outcome 2 – draw the structure of select mono- and disaccharide and indicate the functional importance of aldehyde, ketone, hydroxyl, hemiacetal and hemiketal groups Outcome 3 –describe the Maillard browning reaction and the products produced from this reaction Outcome 4 –describe the main factors regulating the Maillard browning reaction, and compare the mechanisms responsible for regulation Outcome 5 – evaluate food ingredients and processing operations such that they can select combinations that either increase or decrease Maillard browning Outcome 6 – describe and compare cellulose, amlyose, amylopectin and glycogen Outcome 7 –describe the starch granule and the phases and molecular changes involved in starch granule gelatinization and retrogradation Outcome 8 –describe different types of starch modifications and evaluate how the modification will alter gelatinization and retrogradation Outcome 9 – identify the key properties for select hydrocolloid polysaccharides and compare how they function in foods Outcome 10 – compare and contrast the mechanisms for how starch granules and polysaccharides (hydrocolloids) thicken foods Outcome 11 – describe the different types of interactions and bonding found in proteins (hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, covalent bonds) Outcome 12 – calculate the ionic strength of a solution Outcome 13 – draw structures of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids and determine the types of interactions possible Outcome 14 – describe the different levels of structure found in proteins and enzymes (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) Outcome 15 – describe the following reactions, including changes in amino acid or protein 1
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North Carolina State University Department of Food Science structure where pertinent: isoelectric and salt precipitation, denaturation, aggregation, Maillard reaction, lysinoalanine formation and racemization Outcome 16 – determine what role the above mentioned (Outcome 5) reactions play in a given food product or bioprocessing condition Outcome 17 – determine how protein structure and reactions contribute to the functional properties of: network formation (gels), interfacial activity and flavor binding 2
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North Carolina State University Department of Food Science SOLUTION CHEMISTRY In making food products and bioprocessed materials, we need to add various amounts of ingredients to provide for the desired nutrition and quality. We can use basic concepts from previous chemistry courses to understand how ingredients function in foods. Example:
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This note was uploaded on 12/10/2009 for the course FS 402 taught by Professor Dr.e.allenfoegeding during the Spring '09 term at N.C. State.

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Unit%201%20Handout%20-%202009[1] - North Carolina State...

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