Vibrio cholerae-> bacterium that causes cholera, which induces diarrhea from an endotoxin. Natural reservoir is not known. Exotoxin promotes rapid and extensive fluid loss. Gram-negative rods that are facultative anaerobes. Transmitted from contaminated water or eating raw shellfish that have it, or from contact of a contaminated persons feces in a pandemic. Once inside a person, bacteria travels to small intestine where it multiplies. Doctors diagnose cholera by looking at a stool sample and seeing if bacteria is present. They have a single polar flagellum which allows for motility. Use carbon as energy source and usually live in salt-water environments. The diarrhea leads to dehydration and acidosis, and if untreated causes death. Treated by iv fluid replacement. There have been 7 pandemics throughout world, and very few cases in US. It is positive for oxidase and lipase, and can grow with or without NaCl present. There are different strains of vibrio cholerae that don’t cause cholera. Clostridium botulinum-> the neurotoxin suppresses/blocks the pre-synaptic release of aCh, which is
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