EXAM 1 - EXAM 1- copied from 1-note MICRO INTRO: Microbes...

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Sheet1 Page 1 EXAM 1- copied from 1-note MICRO INTRO: h Microbes are everywhere!! h What is microbiology?? . Study of cells and organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye . Bacteria . Viruses . Protozoans . Fungi . Algae . Diatoms . Microorganisms can be single cells or multicellular h Characteristics of cells . Metabolism- things going in and out . Communication . Movement . Reproduction . Differentiation- structures produced to help organism evolve (ex. Spore) h # of microorganisms on Earth = 5 X 10^30 h Impact on humans: good and bad . Agriculture . N2 fixation (N2 -> 2NH3) . Animal husbandry- rumen converts cellulose to protein . Energy . Biofuels (CH4) .
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Sheet1 Page 2 Bioremediation O2 (oil spills) . Microbial mining ( copper ore -> copper) . Food . Food preservation . Fermented foods . Food additives to prevent microbial growth . Disease . Treatment, cure, and prevention . Biotechnology . Genetically modified organisms . Production of pharmaceuticals h Diversity h Structure and Function h Robert Hooke- 1665, first to describe microorganisms h Antoni va Leeuwenhoek- 1667, first to describe bacteria h 4 types of light microscopy . Brightfield . Simplest . Specimen illuminated to 1000X magnification . Specimen dyed to increase contrast S . Phase contrast and Darkfield . Visualize live samples . No staining required . Image contrast derived from cell structures . Fluorescent . Visualization of auto-fluorescent molecules or fluorescent stains
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Sheet1 Page 3 . Compound light microscope . Can do all 4 light microscopies . Optimize image resolution by using lenses with high light- gathering characteristics . Limit of resolution is 0.2 nm h Electron microscope . Limit of resolution is 0.2 nm - 4.0 nm . 2 types . Transmission electron microscope- TEM, for observing internalcell structures (0.2 nm) . Scanning electron microscope- SEM, for 3D imaging and viewing surfaces (4.0 nm) h Significance of being small . Microorganisms can be as small as 0.2 microns . Size affects physiology, growth rate, and ecology . High surface area - to - volume ratio aids in nutrient and waste exchange in the environment . The smaller the cell, the greater SA on the inside of the cell . Nanobacteria- bacteria smaller than 2 microns (IS THIS POSSIBLE???) can everything needed fit inside a cell so small?? MACROMOLECULES h 4 classes of macromolecules . Polysaccharides . Lipids . Nucleic acids . Proteins h Macromolecules
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Sheet1 Page 4 . All held together with strong covalent bonds . CO2 PO43-, N2 and peptide . Weaker bonds- hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions affect macromolecule structure . Hydrogen bonds- water, amino acids, and nitrogenous bases h Typical bacterial cell . 70% water
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This note was uploaded on 12/10/2009 for the course MB 351 taught by Professor Keen during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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EXAM 1 - EXAM 1- copied from 1-note MICRO INTRO: Microbes...

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