test 2 review

test 2 review - Exam review number 2 Energy and enzymes...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Exam review number 2 Energy and enzymes h Explain the differences between exergonic and endergonic reactions (see summary slide) see page 3 h Explain how enzymes act as reaction catalysts h Almost exclusively proteins (some RNAs are catalytic) h Act as catalysts (not consumed during reaction) h Lower activation energy h Influence rate, not equilibrium h Usually highly specific (specificity is defined by structure) h Form reversible complexes with substrate h Often inhibited/regulated by analogs h Frequently organized in pathways P All end in O aseV (name defines function) 6 types ligase Cofactors = non protein component of enzymes h Tightly-bound metal ions (e.g. Zn, Mo, Cu) h Covalently-bound organic prosthetic groups (e.g. heme) h Transiently-bound organic coenzymes (e.g. NAD+) h Describe the structural similarities between ATP and NADH a NADH is an energy source, is a coenzyme that“ s an electron transpoter, dissuable across the membrane. ATP & Energy rich/storage compound, derived from catabolism. The energy released from the hydrolysis of this compound is greater than the average covalent bonds. ATP consists of ribosnucleoside adensine which three phosphate molecules. - generated by exergonic rxns. h Describe how ADP and NAD+ capture energy from biochemical reactions. f Glycolysis h Describe energy transformation compounds involved in glycolysis. Acetyl CoA - Phosphoenolpyruvate “ converted to pyruvate by pyruvate kinase ATP & uses 2 ATP and makes 4 Glucose 6-phosphate “ sugar molecule used as original source of carbon Acetyl phosphate - h Explain the differences between anabolic, catabolic
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Sheet1 Page 2 and amphibolic pathways. Amphibolic means to change both ways Catabolic and anabolic pathways are not always identical shared while some are unique. Biosynthetic reactions need to be largely irreversible and are often coupled to ATP hydrolysis. h Describe microbial transport in glycolysis. h Substrate level occurs where ATP is generated. h Explain substrate-level phosphorylation, amphibolic pathways and gluconeogenesis. Substrate is the synthesis of high-energy phosphate bondsthrough rxn of inorganic phosphate with an activated organic substrate. It is the only way to make ATP in the absence of oxygen. Oxidative is the nonphototrophic production of ATP a thteexpense of a proton motive force formed by electron transport. Gluconeogenesis ‘ is building of glucose, using other forms of energy to create glucose. This is amphibolic. Uses phosphoenelpyruvate. h Describe the products of glycolysis in terms of carbon compounds, ATP (net and total) and NADH 4ATP net 2NADH 2pyruvate h Describe and explain Acetyl CoA and FADH2 FADH & can accept 2 electrons and 2 protons. Acetyl CoA · function as acyl carriers - transfer acetyl and thiol groups
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test 2 review - Exam review number 2 Energy and enzymes...

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