C1210 lecture 12

C1210 lecture 12 - Phenomenology just this side of alchemy....

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Phenomenology just this side of alchemy. Observations of “activity” Hang in there, we’ll justify and quantify the observations when we learn how. Definition : A more “active” metal will displace a less “active” metal from its compounds: Zn( s ) + CuSO 4 ( aq ) Cu( s ) + ZnSO 4 ( aq ) but not Cu( s ) + ZnSO 4 ( aq ) Zn( s ) + CuSO 4 ( aq ) Zn is more “active” than Cu. “Active” = “easily oxidized”. A “single replacement reaction”. Zn( s ) + Cu 2+ ( aq ) Zn 2+ ( aq ) + Cu( s ) x
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By comparing metals in pairs, we can establish an activity series: Au makes Au 3+ least active. can’t replace the others Hg 2+ Ag 1+ Cu 2+ Pb 2+ Sn 2+ Co 2+ Cd 2+ Fe 2+ Cr 3+ Zn 2+ Mn 2+ Al 3+ Mg 2+ Na 1+ Ca 2+ Sr 2+ Ba 2+ K1 + Rb 1+ Cs 1+ most active. can replace all the others H 1+ Can replace H + in nonoxidizing acids Can’t replace H + in nonoxidizing acids Increasing ease to oxidize metal Increasing ease to reduce ion
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The most active metals react with H + most vigorously. The most active metals can reduce H + in water: 2Na( s ) + 2H 2 O H 2 ( g ) + 2NaOH( aq ) Example of using the activity series: An iron nail in CuSO 4 ( aq ) Iron is more active than Cu, so it can displace Cu. Fe(s) + CuSO 4 ( aq ) FeSO 4 + Cu(s) Fe in Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 : Aluminum is more active than iron, no reaction.
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Suppose a mixture is prepared containing MgSO 4 , CuSO 4 , Mg, and Cu. What reaction, if any will occur? metathesis: no. Both sulfates. Will Mg displace Cu 2+ ? Will Cu displace Mg 2+ ? Mg lies below Cu. Mg will displace Cu 2+ , Cu will not displace Mg 2+ . Cu 2+ ( aq ) + Mg( s ) Cu( s ) + Mg 2+ ( aq )
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Write a chemical equation for the reaction that will occur, if any, when (a) aluminum metal is added to a solution of CuCl 2 and (b) silver metal is added to a solution of MgSO 4 . Al is below Cu: 2Al( s ) + 3CuCl 2 Al 2 Cl 3 + 3Cu( s ) Ag is above Mg: Ag( s ) + MgSO 4 no reaction. End 5.4
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• Oxidation is called oxidation because molecular oxygen, O 2 , is a powerful oxidizing agent. • Combustion is the rapid oxidation of fuels by oxygen in air.
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This note was uploaded on 12/10/2009 for the course CHE 1220 taught by Professor Jespersen during the Spring '09 term at St. John's.

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C1210 lecture 12 - Phenomenology just this side of alchemy....

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