fLANs - I1070/T2000 Intro to Telecomm Local Area Networks...

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I1070/T2000 Intro to Telecomm Local Area Networks Dr. T. Telecommunications Program University of Pittsburgh
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Classes of Networks Wide Area Networks (WAN’s) Telephone Public & private data networks Local Area Networks (LAN’s) Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN’s)
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Features of LANs High speed Minimum of 10 Mbps (today) 100 Mbps is common 1 Gbps is emerging How should messages be delivered? Routers? Switches? Shared medium?
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Structure of LANs Topologies Ring Bus Star Media Coax Twisted Pair (shielded and unshielded) Wireless
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Topologies Hub Ring Bus Star
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Transmitting frames over a Bus
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Access Method taxonomy Access Methods Fixed TDM FDM Space Dynamic Random Reservation CSMA Aloha Token Polling Pure CSMA/CD Pure Slotted
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LAN Access techniques Random access Aloha Slotted Aloha Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) With Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) “Deterministic” access Polling Token passing
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Personal Computer LANs Client/server communication Shared resources Peer-to-peer communication Low cost is high priority
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High-Speed Office Networks Increased processing and transfer requirements in many graphics-intensive applications now require significantly higher transfer rates Decreased cost of storage space leads to program and file bloat increased need for transfer capacity Typical office LAN runs at 10Mbps high-speed alternatives run at 100+
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Enterprise Networks High capacity Ability to handle a variety of data traffic Large geographic extent High reliability
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Tiered LANs Cost of attachment to a LAN tends to increase with data rate Alternative to connecting all devices is to have multiple tiers Multiple advantages Higher reliability Greater capacity (less saturation) Better distribution of costs based on need
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Tiered LAN Strategies Bottom-up strategy: individual departments create LANs independently eventually a backbone brings them together Top-down strategy: management develops an organization-wide networking plan
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Tiered LAN Diagram
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Structured Cabling System Designed to encompass entire building so equipment can be easily relocated Standards for cabling within a building (EIA/TIA-568 and ISO 11801) Provides guidance for pre-installation in new buildings and renovations Includes cabling for all applications, including LANs, voice, video, etc Vendor and equipment independent
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Structured Cabling Elements
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LAN Protocol Architecture Layering of protocols that organize the structure of a LAN Physical: Medium Access Control (MAC) Logical: Logical Link Control (LLC)
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Advantages of standards Assure sufficient volume to keep costs down Enable equipment from various sources to interconnect
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IEEE 802 Reference Model IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards committee develops, revises, and extends standards for LAN/MAN environments Uses a three-layer protocol hierarchy: Physical Medium access control (MAC), and Logical link control (LLC)
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IEEE 802 Protocol Models Compared to OSI Model
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