Lecture2_application_layer

Lecture2_application_layer - IS/Tele 2070 Application Layer...

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IS/Tele “2070” Application Layer and Networked Applications Pratibha Menon
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Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model App, itself
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The Internet model Application Transport Internet Network Access
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Application Layer Will discuss: Types of applications Networking implications Client/server computing, databases, Intranet, Extranet Examples of application layer protocols
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Application Models Based on way the app. Is organized : Application Architecture. computer/processing/data/control/staff Stand Alone Centralized: Distributed
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Stand Alone Applications Application resides on a single machine Networking limited to sharing data with other copies of the same application Example Microsoft office programs
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Centralized System Centralized system – a system in which all components are hosted by a central, multi-user computer. Centralized processing, data, control, support Terminal Terminal User Process Central computer User Process
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Centralized System What are the advantages? Economies of scale (equipment and personnel) Lack of duplication Ease in enforcing standards, security Disadvantages Reliability Cost: operation and maintenance Scalability
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Distributed System Distributed system – a system in which components are distributed across multiple locations and computer networks. Accordingly, the processing workload is distributed across multiple computers on the network. Allows greater flexibility in meeting individual needs More redundancy More autonomy Applications can be centralized or distributed in this environment
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Benefits of DS Responsiveness Availability Correspondence to Org. Patterns Resource Sharing Incremental Growth Increased User Involvement & Control End-user Productivity Distance & location independence Privacy and security Vendor independence Flexibility
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Drawbacks of DS More difficulty test & failure diagnosis More components and dependence on communication means more points of failure Incompatibility of components Incompatibility of data More complex management & control Difficulty in control of corporate information resources Duplication of effort
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Why the Trend Toward Distributed Systems? Modern businesses are already decentralized (distributed). Distributed computing moves information and services closer to the customers and users who need them. Personal computers and network servers are less expensive than mainframe computers Distributed computing solutions are in general more user-friendly because they use the PC as the user interface.
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