Lecture4_IP_network

Lecture4_IP_network - I1070/T2000 Intro to Telecom The...

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I1070/T2000 Intro to Telecom The Network Layer messy details Dr. Richard A. Thompson Telecommunications Program University of Pittsburgh

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Course structure Network Overview Internet, TCP/IP, OSI Overarching issues : Underlying technology : Network++ Internet details, External apps dist data proc Internal apps How email, www, cli-serv work A C B D E F
Objectives Describe the address structure in IP And its rationale & limitations. Understand the principles behind routing packets in the internet.

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Internet (IP) Addresses When an organization connects to the Internet, it obtains a set of IP addresses for its computers The current addresses consist of 32 bit binary numbers (IPv4) (theoretically up to 2 32 = 4.29 billion addresses) Show my current IP address Home: 192.168.1.100
IP Addresses Binary numbers are hard to remember, so use decimal equivalents Divide decimal digit string into four sets of numbers separated by “dots” Includes network and host identifiers Dotted decimal notation – eg: 11000000 11100100 00010001 00111001 (bin) 192.228.17.57 (decimal) Binary-to-decimal

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Example 136.142.185.57 Translate into binary Decimal to Binary Convert decimal to sum of binary exponents (0-7): 2 7 =128, 2 6 =64, 2 5 =32, 2 4 =16, 2 3 =8, 2 2 =4, 2 1 =2, 2 0 =1 136=128+8= 2 7 + 2 3 142=128+8+4+2= 2 7 + 2 3 + 2 2 + 2 1 10001000 10001110 10111001 00111001 Decimal-to-Binary
Internet (IP) Addresses Routing each address uniquely would require enormous routing tables take a lot of time Solution: allocate addresses in blocks

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IP Addresses Traditional block sizes Big users (Class A) 128 available, each for 16 million hosts Medium users (Class B) 16,384 available, each for 65,000 hosts Small users (Class C) 2 million available, each for 256 hosts Nowadays block sizes are more flexible A: 128 x 16M B: 16K x 65K C: 2M x 256
IP Address Formats A: 128 x 16M B: 16K x 65K C: 2M x 256 Discuss “prefix property”

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Allows for subdivision of internets within an organization Each LAN can have a subnet number, allowing routing among networks Host ID portion is partitioned into subnet and host numbers
Subnets Host ID is divided in two parts Subnet mask 32-bit number that tells the router how to separate the host address and the network address Shown for Type B Often want 3 divisions: subnet = front part of host id My subnet mask = 255.255.255.0 =255.255.252.0

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Subnet Mask Calculations Type-C: 8-bit Host id

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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2009 for the course TELECOM 2000 taught by Professor Menon during the Fall '09 term at Pittsburgh.

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Lecture4_IP_network - I1070/T2000 Intro to Telecom The...

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