sociology exam 1

sociology exam 1 - SOCIOLOGY MID-TERM EXAM Sociology...

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SOCIOLOGY MID-TERM EXAM Sociology imagination: ability to link your own experiences to social structure. Culture: total way of life shared by members of a community. It includes not only language, values, and symbolic meanings but also technology and materials objects. Society : population that shares the same territory and is group together by economic and political ties. Philosophy of positivism (August Comte): suggest that the social world can be studied with the same scientific accuracy as the natural world. Once the laws of social behavior were learned, scientist could accurately predict and control events. Cultural lag : occurs when one part of culture changes more rapidly than another. Community : characterized by dense, cross-cutting networks. Cultural diffusion or appropation : process by which aspects of one culture enter and are incorporate into another. Proxemics : Study of how the use of space affects communication. Ex: people from different cultures have different notions about personal space. Collective Conscience (Durkheim): Community standards of morality not only confine our behavior but also give us a sense of belonging and integration. Acculturation: process of acquiring the values and social practices of the dominant group and surrounding society. Ex : Religion. Functions : Consequences of social structures that have positive effects on the stability of society. Dysfunctions: Consequences of social structures that have negative effects on the stability of society. Manifest functions : consequences of social structures that are intended and recognized. Latent functions : consequences of social structures that are neither intended nor recognized. Macrosociology : focuses on social structures and organizations and the relationships between them. Microsociology : focuses on interactions among individuals.
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Research process : stating the problem, gathering data, finding patterns and generating theories. Independent variable is the cause in the cause-and-effect relationships. Dependent variable is the effect in the cause-and-effect relationships. It is dependent on the actions of the independent variable. Operational definition describes the exact procedure by which a variable is measured. Sampling is a systematic selection of representative cases from the larger population. Controlled experiments : is a method in which the research manipulates independent variables to test theories of cause and effect. Experimental group is the group that experiences the independent variable. Compared with control group . Survey research : method that involves asking a relatively large number of people the same set of standardized questions. Participant observation : includes a variety of research strategies (participating, interviewing, observating) that examine the context and meanings of human behavior. Guinea pig-effect
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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2009 for the course SOC 1004 at Virginia Tech.

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sociology exam 1 - SOCIOLOGY MID-TERM EXAM Sociology...

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