Sociology Final exam

Sociology Final exam - FINAL EXAM Sociology imagination...

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FINAL EXAM Sociology imagination: ability to link your own experiences to social structure. Culture: total way of life shared by members of a community. It includes not only language, values, and symbolic meanings but also technology and materials objects. Society : population that shares the same territory and is group together by economic and political ties. Philosophy of positivism (August Comte): suggest that the social world can be studied with the same scientific accuracy as the natural world. Once the laws of social behavior were learned, scientist could accurately predict and control events. Cultural diffusion or appropation : process by which aspects of one culture enter and are incorporate into another. Acculturation: process of acquiring the values and social practices of the dominant group and surrounding society. Ex : Religion. Functions : Consequences of social structures that have positive effects on the stability of society. Manifest functions : consequences of social structures that are intended and recognized. Latent functions : consequences of social structures that are neither intended nor recognized. Macrosociology : focuses on social structures and organizations and the relationships between them. Microsociology : focuses on interactions among individuals. Norms : shared rules of conduct that specify how people ought to think and act. Laws : rules that are enforced and sanctioned by the authority of government. They may or may not be norms. Values : shared ideas about desirable goals. Mores : norms associated with fairly strong ideas of right or wrong. Folkways: Norms that are the habitual ways a group does things. Sanctions : rewards for conformity and punishments for nonconformity.
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Popular culture : widely accessible/shared aspects of culture among “ordinary” people primarily through mass media. Self : complex whole that includes unique attributes and normative responses. In sociology, these two parts are called the I and me . Self- concept : Is the self we are aware of. It is our thoughts about our personality and social roles. The Looking Glass Self : Process of learning to view ourselves as we think others view us. Status : Specialized position within a group. Ascribed Status : Fixed by birth and inheritance and is unalterable in a person’s lifetime. Ex: gender, race Achieved Status : optional, one that a person can obtain in a lifetime. Ex : lawyer Identity Salience Hierarchy : Ranking of an individual’s various role identities in order of their importance to him or her. Role : Set of norms specifying the rights and obligations associated with a status. Ex : good students go to class, study… Institutions : Enduring social structures that meet basic human needs. Social Structure
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Sociology Final exam - FINAL EXAM Sociology imagination...

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