lec14 - Electric lighting Evolution of lighting Ancient...

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Unformatted text preview: Electric lighting Evolution of lighting ¡ Ancient times: fire, torches, candles ¡ Greeks and Romans: bronze and pottery lamps with (olive) oil ¡ Middle Ages: oil lamps (with reflectors) ¡ 1784: hollow wick, glass cylinder (Argand, Switzerland) ¡ end XVIII th : kerosene ¡ 1800s: gas street lamps (London) ¡ 1879: Edison’s patent on incandescent lamps ¡ XX th : mercury vapor lamps in 30 ies , fluorescent lamps in 1939, tungsten-halogen lamps in 50 ies , metal halide + high pressure sodium in 60 ies , electrodeless lamps in 90 ies Electric lighting Light emission ¡ Incandescence ­ Filament lamps ­ Pyroluminescence ­ Candoluminescence ­ Carbon arc radiation ¡ Luminescence ­ Photoluminescence (fluo/phosphorescent lamps, Laser) ­ Electroluminescence (LEDs, cathodoluminescence) ­ Other luminescence phenomena Electric lighting Lamp types ¡ Incandescent (classic, halogen) ¡ Discharge (fluorescent tubes) ¡ Electrodeless (induction-based) 8 Natural light 7 Low pressure sodium 6 High pressure sodium 5 Mercury vapor 4 Fluorescence 3 Metal halide 2 Halogen 1 Classic incandescent 200 160 180 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 } } } 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 Incandescent lamps Discharge lamps Natural light lm/W Image by MIT OCW. Electric lighting Incandescent lamps (color °T = 2500 °K) ¡ Classic incandescence ­ 15 to 500 W ­ 6 to 17 lm/W Electric lighting...
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lec14 - Electric lighting Evolution of lighting Ancient...

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