STUDY GUIDE

STUDY GUIDE -...

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1947 Constitution of Japan       Buruma p 142-144, 151-152, Japan in  Trans. P.12, 65-69, 131-134 1. (Note: was on last year’s final, so might reappear. Crystal said about 50% of IDs/essays repeated on our midterm this year) Background: right after WWII MacArthur made sure that the Emperor did not have a divine position (Took a picture with the emperor with his hand above his shoulders meaning he had more power. According to Kingston, emperor was forced to resignate and stripped of all political power Committee members were inexperienced, but one even went to libraries for other constitutions as models (Buruma) Constitution was more liberal, focused on women’s rights and human rights (Kingston) – perhaps one of the most progressive in the world Weakened the emperor Article 9: demilitarize forever – took them from the sovereign right to wage war, bans military forces Douglas MacArthur, in charged of the Supreme Command of Allied Powers, formed a team and gave them a week to write a draft Reactions by Japanese: the standing govt opposed, but the people liked it Significance: it demilitarized Japan, forcing it to focus on its economy, which is one reason it is so strong today Meiji was judged inadequate by him- Kingston 2. US-Japan Security Treaty and the fight over its revision (Kingston) Signed alongside with a peace treaty (Buruma) Led by communists idealists, students end up making demonstrations(Buruma) – crowd charged at the police which defended with tear gas Created by US Congress in 1952 at the end of the US occupation of Japan. Allowed the US military to continue to stay in Japan and use important bases for defense of the Far East Allowed the US to intervene in Japanese internal disturbances US made Japan a battlefield for a potential nuclear war with the Soviet Union Japanese people didn’t like it, mainly because they didn’t want to be involved in another war since their country was already devastated in WWII- noises and dangers in surrounding areas In 1957, Prime Minister and Rightist Kishi started revising the treaty (Buruma) o Made a lot of changes (ie: Japan wouldn’t share cost of US military stationed at its bases) o 1960 – attempted to pass at midnight w/o the opposition’s knowledge o Led to widespread protest Kishi resigns Japanese people still not satisfied with the new version because it failed to change fundamental things and seemed to go against Japan’s desire to be a nation of peace Treaty still in effect today Important at the time because it continued American military presence and became a focus of domestic political confrontation (demonstrations in Japan) Was one of the main cleavages in Japanese politics during the time, 3. General Douglas MacArthur P 131-157 Buruma JIT 10-16
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(Note: Crystal doubts that this ID will be on the final because he’s not Asian) Served and commanded in WWI, WWII, and Korean War
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STUDY GUIDE -...

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