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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 9 INVENTORY COSTING AND CAPACITY ANALYSIS 9-2 The term direct costing is a misnomer for variable costing for two reasons: a. Variable costing does not include all direct costs as inventoriable costs. Only variable direct manufacturing costs are included. Any fixed direct manufacturing costs, and any direct nonmanufacturing costs (either variable or fixed), are excluded from inventoriable costs. b. Variable costing includes as inventoriable costs not only direct manufacturing costs but also some indirect costs (variable indirect manufacturing costs). 9-3 No. The difference between absorption costing and variable costs is due to accounting for fixed manufacturing costs. As service or merchandising companies have no fixed manufacturing costs, these companies do not make choices between absorption costing and variable costing. 9-4 The main issue between variable costing and absorption costing is the proper timing of the release of fixed manufacturing costs as costs of the period: a. at the time of incurrence, or b. at the time the finished units to which the fixed overhead relates are sold. Variable costing uses (a) and absorption costing uses (b). 9-7 Under absorption costing, heavy reductions of inventory during the accounting period might combine with low production and a large production volume variance. This combination could result in lower operating income even if the unit sales level rises. 9-1 9-8 (a) The factors that affect the breakeven point under variable costing are: 1. Fixed (manufacturing and operating) costs. 2. Contribution margin per unit. (b) The factors that affect the breakeven point under absorption costing are: 1. Fixed (manufacturing and operating) costs. 2. Contribution margin per unit. 3. Production level in units in excess of breakeven sales in units. 4. Denominator level chosen to set the fixed manufacturing cost rate. 9-9 Examples of dysfunctional decisions managers may make to increase reported operating income are: a. Plant managers may switch production to those orders that absorb the highest amount of fixed manufacturing overhead, irrespective of the demand by customers. b. Plant managers may accept a particular order to increase production even though another plant in the same company is better suited to handle that order. c. Plant managers may defer maintenance beyond the current period to free up more time for production. 9-10 Approaches used to reduce the negative aspects associated with using absorption costing include: a. Change the accounting system: Adopt either variable or throughput costing, both of which reduce the incentives of managers to produce for inventory. Adopt an inventory holding charge for managers who tie up funds in inventory....
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- Spring '08