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commfinal - Communication and Culture Chapter 7 D i ffering...

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Communication and Culture (Chapter 7) Differing Cultural Values: Individualism/Collectivism Individualist orientation—a value orientation that respects the autonomy and independence of individuals North American, Northern European Collectivistic orientation—a value orientation that stresses the needs of the group South American, Asian, Hispanic, and Asian Americans in US Manifestations: -Discourse about rights and accomplishments -Norms for dress, body adornment, ect. Preferred Personality —a value orientation that expresses whether it is more important for a person to “do” or to “be.” ”Doing” European Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans ”Being” African Americans, Latinos Manifestations: -Discourse about identity /accomplishments -Chronemic norms -Nature and importance of public spaces View of Human Nature —value of orientation that expresses whether humans are fundamentally good, evil, or both Evil United States Good United States, Middle East Manifestations: -Discourse about justice/rights -Discourse about childbearing Human-Nature Value —the perceived relationship between humans and nature Humans rule Nature United States
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Harmony American Indians, Asians Nature rule Humans United States, Middle East Manifestations: -Discourse about body /illness -Discourse about environment -Organization of home/work spaces Power Distanced —refers to the extent to which less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a culture expect and accept an unequal distribution of power Equal power Denmark, Israel, New Zealand Unequal power Mexico, Philippines, India Manifestations: -Forms of address -Appearance markers of social status -Discourse of justice Long-term/Short-term Orientation —the dimension of a societies value orientation that reflects its attitude toward virtue or truth Long-term Virtue; Judaism, Christianity, Islam Short-term Truth; Confucianism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintoism, Polytheistic religions Manifestations: -Discourse of justice -Practices of dealing with conflict Dialectical approach to culture —recognizes that things need not be perceived as either /or, but many be seem as both /and Dichotomous thinking—good or bad, big or small, right or wrong Co-cultural Theory —the language of a particular culture does not serve all of its speakers equally There are 5 assumptions: Society has a hierarchy privileges certain groups
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Part of privileges setting norms for communication Language maintains and reinforces power of dominant groups Communication norms may vary by domain Communication norms often impede the progress of persons whose communication practices do not conform Types of Border Dwellers
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