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Exam 4 - Biogeography Biogeography: Bioticfactors...

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Biogeography Biogeography : the science that attempts to document and understand spatial patterns  of biological diversity Factors limiting species distribution: Biotic factors abiotic factors dispersal: the movement of individuals away from their area of origin 1. Abiotic factors Climate o Major components: temperature, water sunlight, and wind o Global climate patterns o Regional, local, and seasonal effects on climate Bodies of water; mountains, seasonality; microclimate; long- term climate change o Macroclimate : global, regional, local level o Microclimate : fine-scale patterns Energy o Global climate patterns Temperature and water vary across Earth’s surface Largely determined by input of solar energy and Earth’s  movement in space Sunlight intensity: latitudinal variation o Global variations in temperature
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What causes the seasons? It can NOT be the distance of the earth from the sun since the  season are opposite in the northern and southern hemispheres Seasons caused by tilt of the Earth as it revolves around  the sun Energy+Water o Global variation in water Warming air absorbs water and cooling releases water, causing  more rain at some latitudes Deserts occur at about 30 latitude Global wind patterns Surface air flow and rotation of the Earth Energy+Water+Substrate o Effects of large bodies of water on climate 1. Warm air over land rises 2. Air cools ar high elevations 3. Cooler air sinks over water 4. Cool air over water moves inland o Effects of mountain on climate North vs. south facing slopes receive different amounts of  sunlight, which affects species distribution Mountains have significant effect on the amount of sunlight  reaching an area, as well as on local temperature and rainfall. South facing slops in the N hemisphere receive more sunlight  than north facing slopes—warmer or drier Wind patterns interact with mountains to cause more rain on  windward sides, rain shadows  on lee sides o Effects of seasonality
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Seasonal turnover  in lakes with winter ice cover o Microclimates Within a region or habitat, climatic factors can vary dramatically These form small areas with distinct microclimates  or  microhabitats Long term Climate change o Species migration patterns current range and predicted range for the  American beech under two scenarios of climate change 2. Biomes: major types of ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions  of land or water Aquatic o General features: freshwater biomes (salt concentration <1%); marine  biomes (salt avg. 3%); marine biomes are the largest (cover 75% of 
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