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Click to edit Master subtitle style What are stem cells? Renew themselves for long periods through cell division (self-renewal) Give rise to specialized cell types (differentiation) indicating an important slide
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Types of Stem cells (Defined by their origin and potentials) Adult (or somatic) stem cells Ø Tissue specific adult stem cells Ø Mesenchymal stem cells Embryonic stem cells Ø Embryonic stem cells (ES) Ø Embryonic germ cells (EG) Ø Embryonic carcinoma cells Ø Epiblast-derived stem cells Ø Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS)
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Developmental potentials Ø A multipotent cell can give rise to several types of mature cells Ø A pluripotent cell can give rise to almost all types of adult cells Ø A totipotent cell can give rise to a new individual, given appropriate maternal support
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Developmental potentials Hematopoietic stem cells Multipotent
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Adult (Somatic) stem cells 1. Emerge later in the fetus development 2. Serve as a reservoir of continuous replenishment for the tissues in which they reside
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Nature 441 , 1080-1086 (29 June 2006) Adult stem cells: serve as a reservoir of continuous replenishment for the tissues in which they reside (homeostasis and repair) & with tissue heterogeneity
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Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells Dominici M, et al, Cytotherapy 2006;8:315 – 317. The MSC is defined according to three criteria (according to the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposal): (more potentials?) (1) its property of adherence to plastic (2) its phenotype : CD14- or CD11b-, CD19- or CD79& -, CD34-, CD45-, HLA-DR-, CD73+, CD90+, CD105+ (3) its capacity to be differentiated into three lineages : chondrocyte, osteoblast and adipocyte (possible more).
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Important questions about adult stem cells How many kinds of adult stem cells exist, and in which tissues do they exist? What are the sources of adult stem cells in the body -"leftover" embryonic stem cells, or arise in some other way? Why do they remain in an undifferentiated state when all the cells around them have differentiated? Do adult stem cells normally exhibit transdifferentiation (plasticity)? Is it possible to expand sufficient adult stem cells in vitro for transplants? Which factors stimulate stem cells to relocate to the sites of injury or damage? How to reduce immune rejection (allograft) Open questions
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Embryonic germ cells & embryonic carcinoma cells http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/appendixB.asp.
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Timing for derivation of ES or epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs, mouse ) Nature. 2007 Jul 12;448(7150):191-5; Nature. 2007 Jul 12;448(7150):196- 9.
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Human embryonic stem cells 1. Derived from a 5-6 days of blastocyte 2. In vitro develop into three germ layers and give rise to almost any type of cell - similar to in vivo inner cell mass development. If injected into immune deficient mouse, will form teratomas.
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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2009 for the course BCH bch4122 taught by Professor Wang during the Spring '09 term at University of Ottawa.

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