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Unformatted text preview: LW-BCH4122 – stem cell glossaryGlossary of Stem Cell (From NIH Web http://stemcells.nih.gov/; http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/glossary.asp) Adult (or somatic) stem cell—An undifferentiatedcell found in a differentiatedtissue that can renew itself and differentiate (with certain limitations) to give rise to all the specialized cell types of the tissue from which it originated. It is important to note that scientists do not agree about whether or not adult stem cells may give rise to cell types other than those of the tissue from which they originate.Apoptosis – programmed cell death.Astrocyte—a type of supporting (glial) cell found in the nervous system.Blastocoel—The fluid-filled cavity inside the blastocystof the developing embryo.Blastocyst—A preimplantationembryo of about 150 cells produced by cell division following fertilization. The blastocyst is a sphere made up of an outer layer of cells (the trophoblast), a fluid-filled cavity (the blastocoel), and a cluster of cells on the interior (the inner cell mass).Bone marrow stromal cells—A mixed population of stem cells found in bone marrow that does not give rise to blood cells but instead generates bone, cartilage, fat, and fibrous connective tissue.Cell division—Method by which a single cell divides to create two cells. There are two main types of cell division: mitosisand meiosis.Cell-based therapies—Treatment in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cells or tissues.Cell culture—Growth of cells in vitroin an artificial medium for experimental research.Clone—Generate identical copies of a molecule, cell, or organism.1.When it is used to refer to cells grown in a tissue culture dish, a clone is a line of cells that is genetically identical to the originating cell. This cloned line is produced by cell division (mitosis) of the originating cell. 2.The term clone may also be used to refer to an animal produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer(SCNT). Cloning—See Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).Cord blood stem cells—See Umbilical cord blood stem cells.Culture medium—The liquid that covers cells in a culture dish and contains nutrients to feed the cells. Medium may also include other growth factors added to produce desired changes in the cells.1LW-BCH4122 – stem cell glossaryDifferentiation—The process whereby an undifferentiated embryonic cell acquires the features of a specialized cell such as a heart, liver, or muscle cell. And an undifferentiated adult stem cell (such as a hematopoietic stem cell) acquires the features of a specialized cell such as lymphocyte, monocyte, read blood cell, or platelet....
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- Spring '09
- Developmental Biology, Cellular differentiation