PSYC260Lecture15&16 - Groups

PSYC260Lecture15&16 - Groups - PSYC 260 Oct 23rd...

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PSYC 260 Oct 23 rd & 28 th , 2008 Topic 8: Groups 1. Effects of Mere Presence of Others – Being evaluated? Simple or complex task? a. Social Facilitation: Arousal from presence of other people and the knowledge you are being evaluated i. Affect: People do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks ii. Example: Michaels et al. Pool Hall Study (1982): 4 students observed either novice or experienced pool players shoot pool iii. Results: Novice players did worse in presence of other people, whereas ‘professional’ players did better iv. Three theories of arousal: 1. Presence of others makes us more alert – people are not very predictable 2. We are concerned about how others evaluate – evaluation apprehension 3. Others can be distracting – divided attention produces arousal v. Whites are more likely to act prejudiced (as this is well-learned) in presence of others b. Social Loafing: Relaxation from presence of other people and knowledge you cannot be evaluated i. People do worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks ii. Example: Group projects where there is no evaluation iii. Stronger in men than women iv. Stronger in Western than Asian culture c. Deindividuation: Feelings of anonymity and reduced individuality, resulting in the loosening of normal constraints on behavior i. Leads to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts 1. reduces the likelihood that any individual will be singled out and blamed 2.
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