PSYC260Lecture21&22 - Prejudice

PSYC260Lecture21&22 - Prejudice - PSYC 260 Nov 18th...

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PSYC 260 Nov 18 th th , 2008 Topic 12 : Prejudice and Stereotyping 1. What Is Prejudice a. Definition: A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group i. Can be based on any kind of group membership: Not just race, but also gender, or age; your religion, where you go to college, your sexual orientation, etc. ii. Human beings might be naturally prejudiced, but the specifics must be learned b. Three Components i. Affective or Emotional Component 1. failure of logic (hard to argue with) 2. Anger, frustration, or hurt self-esteem may bring out prejudice normally suppressed ii. Cognitive Component – Stereotype 1. Definition: A generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members 2. It is a technique we use to simplify how we look at the world 3. If accurate, would be an adaptive shorthand way of dealing with complex events; otherwise blinds us to individual differences iii. Behavioral Component – Discrimination 1. Definition: An unjustified negative or harmful action toward the members of the a group simply because of their membership in that group 2. Formal discrimination and interpersonal discrimination c. Justification-Suppression Model i. People struggle between their urge to express prejudice and their need to maintain a positive self-concept ii. Requires energy to suppress prejudiced impulses iii. As we are programmed to avoid the constant expenditure of energy, we’re constantly on the lookout for information that will enable us to convince ourselves that there is a valid justification for disliking this group, so we can act against them and avoid dissonance d. But Why Do We Have Negative Attitudes Toward Out-groups? i. Informational Social Influence – look for information from others ii. Cognitive bias toward remembering what is distinctive People tend to remember things they see less. By a combination of two rare things, our minds tend to exaggerate how many things actually happened - Jane, a Member of Group A, visited a sick friend in the hospital Kate, a Member of Group B, cheated on a test Sue, a Member of Group A, helped a friend with her homework
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Mary, a Member of Group B, was the lead in her school play Debby, a Member of Group A, was arrested for drunk driving Actual Frequency lower than Number Recalled – Memory Bias e. i. Participants read sentences about: Common/common, common/rare, rare/rare combinations Each group and behavior presented only once C/c: “Jennifer, who was born in New York, drinks coffee every morning” R/r: “Ben, a Jehovah’s Witness, owns a pet sloth” 1. The rare/rare combinations: People took longer to read them More likely to see the person as the cause of the behavior More likely to remember them
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PSYC260Lecture21&22 - Prejudice - PSYC 260 Nov 18th...

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