HIEU201Lecture34 - HIEU 201 Nov 21st 2008 The Seventeenth...

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Unformatted text preview: HIEU 201 Nov 21st, 2008 The Seventeenth Century: The Thirty Years’ War & English Civil War 1. The Prelude to the Thirty Years’ War a. The Austrian Habsburgs b. Calvinism in Habsburg Austria & Bohemia (seen as part of the Austrian crown) – affected the middle level of the nobility c. Questions of Succession i. England: The Marriage of Elizabeth Stuart to Friedrich V of the Palatinate – one of the biggest weddings of the seventeenth century 2. The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) – prelude to the English Civil War a. The Defenestration of Prague b. Ferdinand II (r. 1619-1637) c. The Disputed Throne of Bohemia d. Maximilian (1597-1651) of Bavaria and Spain & The Catholic League e. Battle of White Mountain: 1620 f. Belligerents i. Sweden, Bohemia, Denmark-Norway, Dutch Republic, France, Saxony, Electoral Palatinate, England, Transylvania, anti-Habsburg forces in Hungary ii. Holy Roman Empire, Catholic League, Austria, Bavaria, Hungary, Croatia, Spanish Empire g. Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583- 1634) h. Edict of Restitution in 1629 & Dismissal of Wallenstein i. 1630: Gustavus Adolphus & Sweden j. Battle of Lützen & Death of Gustavus k. 1634 Battle of Nördlingen l. The French Intervention i. Battle of Rocroi in 1643 m. Treaty of Westphalia (1648) i. First pan-European peace negotiations ii. Long Term Effects & Fragmentation of HRE n. Treaty of Pyrénées (1659) i. Bourbon victory over the Hapsburgs o. The Costs i. 300,000+ KIA ii. Population: 210 million in 1648, 13.5 million in 1648 3. The English Civil War a. The Prelude i. The End of the Elizabethan Settlement 1. Elizabethan Culture ii. James VI and I (r. 1603-1625): Parliamentary Purse Strings b. Charles I (r. 1625-1649) i. 1628: Petition of Right ii. William Laud iii. Scottish Revolt c. 1640, The Short Parliament i. Militia Ordinance ii. Constitutionalist Revolt d. The Long Parliament and attacks of Royalists e. 1642, Beginning of Civil War i. Constitutionalist Revolt f. Oliver Cromwell, The New Model Army & Presbyterian Hegemony i. Created a parliament and offered Cromwell the position of king, refused g. 1645: Royalist Defeat, 1646: Surrender of Charles I & Treason Trial h. 1649, Execution of Charles I i. 1650/51, Final Defeat of Royalist Forces from Scotland j. 1653: End of Commonwealth & Beginning of Lord Protectorate i. The birth of Great Britain ii. 1658: Death of Cromwell – led to another constitutional crisis and civil war 4. The Restoration (1660-1685) a. Charles II returns from France b. 1672: Declaration of Indulgence & Crypto-Catholicism c. The Test Act: Rejection of Transubstantion as requirement for office d. 1685: Death of Charles II, ascension James II i. Rejection of all religious tests ii. Had a son, heir of English throne considered Catholic, potential of civil war e. Union of Whigs and Tories to reject Catholic Monarchy – see it leading back to civil war 5. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 a. William and Mary’s bloodless invasion – invited to invade, James II flew b. Bill of Rights i. No monarch could assume the throne without the express approval of Parliament ii. The monarch would be subject to all the laws of the realm iii. No Catholic could assume the English throne. c. 1689 Toleration Act 6. France: Louis XIII & XIV a. Louis XIII (d. 1643) i. Peace of Alais (1629) ii. Armand-Jean du Plessis (15851642), Cardinal Richelieu 1. Patronage Network 2. Anti-Habsburg Foreign Policy 3. Tax Burden 4. Intendant system – second administrative system b. Louis XIV (r. 1643-1715) i. Regency of Anne of Austria (1601-1666) & Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661) ii. The Fronde (1648-1653) – the last French nobel revolt that lasted 5 years 1. Alliance of Nobles & Local Parlements against undo royal influence 2. Rivalry with Estates General iii. 1661: Louis XIV assumes personal power iv. Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683) & rise of bourgeoisie 1. Tax Farming System & bureaucratic reform 2. Merchantilism a. Self-sufficiency, trade control, bullion v. Religious Life 1. Rise of Jansenism 2. Bishop Jacques Boussuet (16271704): divine right of monarchy vi. The Court at Versailles as Cultural Institution & Control of the Nobles – kept the nobility busy from revolts, but led to popular resent against the crown for burden of expenses 1. Moliere’s Comedies of Manners 2. Civilizing Impulse 7. Austrian Consolidation & State Building a. Leopold I (r. 1657-1705) i. Baroque Culture & Catholic Reformation ii. Treaty of Carlowitz (1699): recovery of the Danube from Ottomans 8. The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia a. Elector Friedrich Wilhelm (r. 16401688) i. Annexation of Prussia & Alliance with Junkers ii. Mercantilist sponsorship of industries 1. Huguenots in exile 9. The Dutch Golden Age a. Asian & Atlantic Trade i. Dutch East India Company b. The Slave Trade & Plantation Economies: sugar ...
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