ANT%20151%2007

ANT%20151%2007 - L a s t tim e w e s ta r te d to e x p lo...

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1 Lecture 7 Fossil and Modern Prosimians, Part II Last time we started to explore the Golden Age of Prosimian Primates – the Eocene And especially those in the Superfamily Adapoidea like Cantius , Notharctus , Adapis , and Sivaladapis . They look lemur-like in grade and early members are probably related to the ancestors of modern lemurs of Madagascar. And we took a quick look at the living Lemuroidea of Madagascar Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Cheirogaleidae Indriidae Daubentoniidae Today the sub-fossil Lemuroidea and living and fossil Lorisoidea and the Tarsiiformes • Primates – Prosimii • Lemuriformes – Adapoidea – Lemuroidea – Lorisoidea • Tarsiiformes – Omomyoidea – Tarsioidea The fossil record of Lemuriformes on Madagascar consists of a series of bizarre subfossil members of Lemuroidea • They are “subfossils” because they are not very old. • Most associated with living taxa • Done in by humans sometime in the last 2000 years Subfossil Malagasy Lemuroidea Demonstrates the latent potential for diversity of adaptation and homoplasy • Fascinating group with a great variety of adaptations • Some koala-like ( Megaladapis ) • Some sloth-like ( Paleopropithecus ) • Some monkey-like ( Archeolemur and Hadropithecus )
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2 Megaladapis • Cow-sized skull • St. Bernard-sized body (60 kg) • Dental formula of 0133/2133 associates it with Lepilemuridae (aka Megaladapidae) • Selenodont teeth- like ungulates Megaladapis Odd, long nasal bones Fused mandibular symphysis No upper incisors Tooth comb "Selenodont" teeth: Cusps with complex ridges, especially as they wear. These are good for grinding vegetation. Megaladapis Megaladapis It’s closest living analog is the koala. Both have a body plan for vertical climbing. Archaeoindris • Skull the size of Megaladapis, but different in shape • Sloth-like • HUGE…about the size of a gorilla • Assigned to Indriidae Palaeopropithecus • ANOTHER sloth-like lemur • Only 50 kg • Convergent with hominoids in shoulder and elbow
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3 Palaeopropithecus This animal was not a vertical clinger and leaper like the modern indrids. It moved with its body under the branches similar to a modern day sloth. • An indriid more like living “monkeys” • Terrestrial quadruped— but with high intermembral index Archaeolemur The molars of Archeolemur have strong ridges on them. Similar to the selenodont molars or bilophodont molars of modern taxa. Another monkey-like subfossil lemur is Hadropithecus . This guy was a big time chewer. • The teeth were thick with enamel, and the premolars are molarized • It has a fused mandibular symphysis. • Thought to have evolved to masticate tough, gritty food of grass, rhizomes, seeds, and blades. Australopithecus boisei
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2009 for the course ANT 151 taught by Professor Lynn during the Winter '09 term at UC Davis.

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ANT%20151%2007 - L a s t tim e w e s ta r te d to e x p lo...

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