Infant study guide

Infant study guide - Infant study guide Plato believed...

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Infant study guide Plato believed children were born with innate knowledge, artistotle thought the blank tablet idea Nature- refers to biological endowment in genes from our parents Nurture- refers to wife range of environments physical and social Schizophrenia is nurture Continuous- process of small changes Discontinuous- sudden changes Four year old could though liquid was more in taller glass. 6 year old knew right answer Stage theories- development occurs in a progression of distinct age related stages Piaget had the theory of cognitive development – development of thinking and reasoning 2 to 5 year olds can focus on one task, 6-7 can do more than one Variation- difference within and among individuals Selection- more frequent survival and greater reproduction Synapses that are not used will eventually die and prune away Sociocultural context- physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances ( brothers, sisters, teachers, friends peers) In US, kids sleep with parents for a year or 2 then separate. asian stay longer with parents Socioeconomic status- measure of social class based on income and education. Children from poor families do less well then richer ones Reliability- refers to the degree to which independent measures of a behavior are consistent Interrater reliability- how much agreement there is in the observations of different raters who witness the same behavior. Ex:easygoing or difficult is hard to rate or rating 1 to 10
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Test retest reliability- attained when a measure of child’s behavior is similar Validity- degree to which it measures what is intended to be measured. Internal validity- whether effects observed within experiments can be attributed with confidence to condition being tested Ex:psychotherapy given to depressed adults.happy 3 months later but we don’t know if its because of psychotherapy so internal invalidity External validity- ability to generalize beyond particulars of research. Structured interview- used when goal is to collect self reports on same topics from all of people being studied Ex:how much does your teacher care about you, how much do u know about number+ Clinical interview- obtaining in depth information about an individual child. If child says something intriguing, they interviewer can ask different questions to elaborate Naturalistic observation- when primary goal is to describe how children behave in usual environments. Structured observation- design a situation which will elicit behavior relevant to hypothesis and observe how children react in these situations Variables- attributes that vary across individuals and situations such as age, sex, and status Correlation designs- determine whether children who differ in one characteristic also differ in other characteristics. Ex: researcher might examine whether toddlers
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