Higher order conditioning
the state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively rapid, low-amplitude brain waves
(During this stage, images sometimes appear, as if we were viewing still photos, although this is not true dreaming).
a sleep deeper than
that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of “sleep spindles”; (This stage of sleep
makes up about half of the total sleep of those in their early 20s).
a sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater peaks and
valleys in the wave pattern than in stage 2 sleep.
the deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation.
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep:
sleep occupying 20% of an adult’s sleeping time, characterized by increased heart rate, blood pressure, and
breathing rate; erections; eye movements; and the experience of dreaming.
Latent content of dreams:
According to Freud, the “disguised” meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects.
Manifest content of dreams:
According to Freud, the apparent story line of dreams.
sudden awakenings from non-REM sleep that are accompanied by extreme fear, panic, and strong physiological arousal.
an uncontrollable sleeping that occurs for short periods while a person is awake.
biological processes that occur regularly on approximately a 24-hour cycle.
drugs that influence a person’s emotions, perceptions, and behavior.
drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in the user so that withdrawal from them leads to a craving for the
drug that, in some cases, may be nearly irresistible.
addictions, the body becomes so accustomed to functioning in the presence of a drug that it cannot function without it.
addictions, people believe they need the drug to respond to the stresses of daily living.
drugs that have an arousal effect on the central nervous system, causing a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, and muscular tension.
(for men): having five or more drinks in one sitting
(for women): women generally weigh less than men and their bodies absorb alcohol less efficiently; having four or more drinks at