Study Guiide for Exam2-1


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STUDY GUIDE FOR THE SECOND EXAM This is a study guide for the second exam, which will take place in class on Wednesday, April 8.   SAMPLE ESSAYS 1. What are attitudes?  Where do they come from?  What functions do they serve? a. A learned and socially acquired tendency to evaluate a person, event, or situation in a  certain way. b. Attitudes are products of socialization c. Attitude are towards people, events, or situations d. Attitudes vary in directionality (+ or -) and intensity (strong or weak) e. Help organize behavior by providing information about likes and dislikes f. Decisions to approach or avoid g. Define the self h. By letting people know who you are and what you stand for  2. Imagine that you were doing a survey of students’ attitudes toward this class.  Write one  attitude question focusing on the cognitive component of students’ attitudes, one on the  evaluative/emotional component, and one on the behavioral component. a. 3. Heider uses triangles to illustrate balanced and unbalanced states involving third parties.  Draw two such triangles – one that is balanced and another than unbalanced, and explain  them in your own words. a. Examples of imbalanced triangles i. Friendships ii. Relations with parents 4. What options does Heider consider for restoring cognitive balance?  What option does he not  consider? a. Heider’s Balance Theory: Links attitudes and social relationships b. Persuade Person B to change his or her attitudes toward “C” c. Re-evaluate (change) own attitudes toward “C” d. Re-evaluate (change) own attitudes toward Person B i. withdrawal e. Compartmentalization  f. “Agreeing to disagree”
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5. Briefly identity and explain, “Post decisional dissonance.”  How, according to Festinger, do  people try to reduce this particular kind of dissonance? a. Two situations in which dissonance commonly occurs. i. After a decision (“post decisional dissonance” ii. When one acts in a way that is inconsistent with one’s own beliefs.  (“counter- attitudinal behavior”) iii. A.k.a. attitude-discrepant behavior b. Post-Decisional Dissonance: i. Many cognitions associated with a decision 1. Most are “consonant” with the decision 2. But some are “dissonant” with the decision ii. Dissonance is an uncomfortable state; people are motivated to reduce it. iii. Theory predicts that to reduce dissonance persons will change attitude toward  “dissonant” elements to bring them into line with the decision. 6.
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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2009 for the course SOCIOL 105 taught by Professor Zussman during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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