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Lecture Notes History

Lecture Notes History - History 1013 God is Dead...

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History 1013 08/24/2009 God is Dead –Nietzsche (God = objectivity) History v. history o H- field (interpretation of facts) o .h – fact Histography o History of History o Greek Herodotus o Oral histories 19 th Century o History was the same, subjective o Leopold Ranke o Archives are where history is made o Shift to objectivity 20 th Century o Post-modernism o No such thing as truth (God is dead) o Currently in the middle Benefits o Critical thinking o Methods of argument Dogma o Cyclical argument o Never considering untruth Science or Art 08/26/2009 The European Miracle o Implies something special about Europe that made it succeed o Special path o Nothing special about Europe in Middle Ages o Parity – on par or behind the rest of the world Mongols o Developed 12-13 th Century o Carried on to the 14 th Century in some places Disruption (from Northern China) Led by Genghis Khan (controlled ¾ of Eurasian continent) Overtook Chinese with Yuan Dynasty Black Death o Mongols brought from homeland, traveled with it
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o 2/3 Europe’s population wiped out Mongol invasion had hard impact on Baltic States and development ‘vacuums’-obliterated states and new power arose Ottoman Empire o Osman 13 th Century o From Anatolia o ‘other’ – Islamic state threatening Europe o 1453- Constantinople sacked by Ottomans (huge blow to Morale in Europe) o Trade-the most important aspect of early modern Europe (Driving force) China o Yuan Dynasty (unified state made trade easier) o Silk Road –from China to middle East, unification enabled trade regulations Ottomans & Europeans benefit Trade through Mediterranean o 1368 – Ming Dynasty Isolationist Could not leave Destroys navy Destroyed trade Cause for Europeans to get around Middle East for trade (only had silver and gold) Africa o Fragmented o Parity o Textile and iron production o Domestic slavery (class issue) Much like serfdom Not racial Not as strict as feudal Europe Europe o Check website o Very fragmented and disorganized Roots in feudalism Only form of wealth is in land o Shift from land to money (wealth) You can get land back Centralization o Gunpowder important (from China) Cannon warfare Knock down castle walls Ended siege warfare Cannons are expensive which led to taxes and redoubt o Redoubt-slanted walls to deflect cannonballs
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Naval Technology o Trade centered around Mediterranean Able to use ‘galleys’ (kind of like Viking boats) Change when silk road ends o Caravel-driven by sails, bigger, smaller crew Conclusion o Pre-1450 Europe was far from being a global power o Europe was not always great o Parity issue o Trade with China one sided o Centralization 08/28/2009 Mediterranean o 3 major players in trade Venice Genoa Florence o Portugal and Spain left out of trade First two to attempt sailing around Africa First to use Atlantic o
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