atmega8 - Features • High-performance, Low-power AVR®...

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Unformatted text preview: Features • High-performance, Low-power AVR® 8-bit Microcontroller • Advanced RISC Architecture – 130 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution – 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers – Fully Static Operation – Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz – On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments – 8K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program memory – 512 Bytes EEPROM – 1K Byte Internal SRAM – Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM – Data retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C(1) – Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program True Read-While-Write Operation – Programming Lock for Software Security Peripheral Features – Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler, one Compare Mode – One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture Mode – Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator – Three PWM Channels – 8-channel ADC in TQFP and QFN/MLF package Eight Channels 10-bit Accuracy – 6-channel ADC in PDIP package Six Channels 10-bit Accuracy – Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface – Programmable Serial USART – Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface – Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator – On-chip Analog Comparator Special Microcontroller Features – Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection – Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator – External and Internal Interrupt Sources – Five Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, and Standby I/O and Packages – 23 Programmable I/O Lines – 28-lead PDIP, 32-lead TQFP, and 32-pad QFN/MLF Operating Voltages – 2.7 - 5.5V (ATmega8L) – 4.5 - 5.5V (ATmega8) Speed Grades – 0 - 8 MHz (ATmega8L) – 0 - 16 MHz (ATmega8) Power Consumption at 4 Mhz, 3V, 25°C – Active: 3.6 mA – Idle Mode: 1.0 mA – Power-down Mode: 0.5 µA • • 8-bit with 8K Bytes In-System Programmable Flash ATmega8 ATmega8L Summary • • • • • Pin Configurations (RESET) PC6 (RXD) PD0 (TXD) PD1 (INT0) PD2 (INT1) PD3 (XCK/T0) PD4 VCC GND (XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6 (XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7 (T1) PD5 (AIN0) PD6 (AIN1) PD7 (ICP1) PB0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 PDIP 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 PC5 (ADC5/SCL) PC4 (ADC4/SDA) PC3 (ADC3) PC2 (ADC2) PC1 (ADC1) PC0 (ADC0) GND AREF AVCC PB5 (SCK) PB4 (MISO) PB3 (MOSI/OC2) PB2 (SS/OC1B) PB1 (OC1A) TQFP Top View PD2 (INT0) PD1 (TXD) PD0 (RXD) PC6 (RESET) PC5 (ADC5/SCL) PC4 (ADC4/SDA) PC3 (ADC3) PC2 (ADC2) 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 (INT1) PD3 (XCK/T0) PD4 GND VCC GND VCC (XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6 (XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 PC1 (ADC1) PC0 (ADC0) ADC7 GND AREF ADC6 AVCC PB5 (SCK) 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 PD2 (INT0) PD1 (TXD) PD0 (RXD) PC6 (RESET) PC5 (ADC5/SCL) PC4 (ADC4/SDA) PC3 (ADC3) PC2 (ADC2) (T1) PD5 (AIN0) PD6 (AIN1) PD7 (ICP1) PB0 (OC1A) PB1 (SS/OC1B) PB2 (MOSI/OC2) PB3 (MISO) PB4 MLF Top View (INT1) PD3 (XCK/T0) PD4 GND VCC GND VCC (XTAL1/TOSC1) PB6 (XTAL2/TOSC2) PB7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 PC1 (ADC1) PC0 (ADC0) ADC7 GND AREF ADC6 AVCC PB5 (SCK) 2 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 (T1) PD5 (AIN0) PD6 (AIN1) PD7 (ICP1) PB0 (OC1A) PB1 (SS/OC1B) PB2 (MOSI/OC2) PB3 (MISO) PB4 NOTE: The large center pad underneath the MLF packages is made of metal and internally connected to GND. It should be soldered or glued to the PCB to ensure good mechanical stability. If the center pad is left unconneted, the package might loosen from the PCB. ATmega8(L) Overview The ATmega8 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega8 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz, allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed. Figure 1. Block Diagram XTAL1 RESET PC0 - PC6 VCC XTAL2 PB0 - PB7 Block Diagram PORTC DRIVERS/BUFFERS PORTB DRIVERS/BUFFERS GND PORTC DIGITAL INTERFACE PORTB DIGITAL INTERFACE MUX & ADC AGND AREF PROGRAM COUNTER ADC INTERFACE TWI STACK POINTER TIMERS/ COUNTERS OSCILLATOR PROGRAM FLASH SRAM INTERNAL OSCILLATOR INSTRUCTION REGISTER GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTERS X WATCHDOG TIMER OSCILLATOR INSTRUCTION DECODER Y Z MCU CTRL. & TIMING CONTROL LINES ALU INTERRUPT UNIT AVR CPU STATUS REGISTER EEPROM PROGRAMMING LOGIC SPI USART + - COMP. INTERFACE PORTD DIGITAL INTERFACE PORTD DRIVERS/BUFFERS PD0 - PD7 3 2486TS–AVR–05/08 The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32 general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers. The ATmega8 provides the following features: 8K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write capabilities, 512 bytes of EEPROM, 1K byte of SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose working registers, three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes, internal and external interrupts, a serial programmable USART, a byte oriented Twowire Serial Interface, a 6-channel ADC (eight channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages) with 10-bit accuracy, a programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, and five software selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU while allowing the SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Powerdown mode saves the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next Interrupt or Hardware Reset. In Power-save mode, the asynchronous timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping. The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and all I/O modules except asynchronous timer and ADC, to minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In Standby mode, the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running while the rest of the device is sleeping. This allows very fast start-up combined with low-power consumption. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high density non-volatile memory technology. The Flash Program memory can be reprogrammed In-System through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer, or by an On-chip boot program running on the AVR core. The boot program can use any interface to download the application program in the Application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash Section will continue to run while the Application Flash Section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write operation. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel ATmega8 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The ATmega8 AVR is supported with a full suite of program and system development tools, including C compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators, In-Circuit Emulators, and evaluation kits. Disclaimer Typical values contained in this datasheet are based on simulations and characterization of other AVR microcontrollers manufactured on the same process technology. Min and Max values will be available after the device is characterized. 4 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 ATmega8(L) Pin Descriptions VCC GND Port B (PB7..PB0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/ TOSC2 Digital supply voltage. Ground. Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB6 can be used as input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. Depending on the clock selection fuse settings, PB7 can be used as output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. If the Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator is used as chip clock source, PB7..6 is used as TOSC2..1 input for the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 if the AS2 bit in ASSR is set. The various special features of Port B are elaborated in “Alternate Functions of Port B” on page 58 and “System Clock and Clock Options” on page 25. Port C (PC5..PC0) Port C is an 7-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. If the RSTDISBL Fuse is programmed, PC6 is used as an I/O pin. Note that the electrical characteristics of PC6 differ from those of the other pins of Port C. If the RSTDISBL Fuse is unprogrammed, PC6 is used as a Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a Reset, even if the clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 15 on page 38. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a Reset. The various special features of Port C are elaborated on page 61. Port D (PD7..PD0) Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega8 as listed on page 63. RESET Reset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is given in Table 15 on page 38. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. PC6/RESET 5 2486TS–AVR–05/08 AVCC AVCC is the supply voltage pin for the A/D Converter, Port C (3..0), and ADC (7..6). It should be externally connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is used, it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter. Note that Port C (5..4) use digital supply voltage, VCC. AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter. In the TQFP and QFN/MLF package, ADC7..6 serve as analog inputs to the A/D converter. These pins are powered from the analog supply and serve as 10-bit ADC channels. AREF ADC7..6 (TQFP and QFN/MLF Package Only) 6 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 ATmega8(L) Resources A comprehensive set of development tools, application notes and datasheets are available for download on http://www.atmel.com/avr. Note: 1. Data Retention Reliability Qualification results show that the projected data retention failure rate is much less than 1 PPM over 20 years at 85°C or 100 years at 25°C. 7 2486TS–AVR–05/08 Register Summary Address 0x3F (0x5F) 0x3E (0x5E) 0x3D (0x5D) 0x3C (0x5C) 0x3B (0x5B) 0x3A (0x5A) 0x39 (0x59) 0x38 (0x58) 0x37 (0x57) 0x36 (0x56) 0x35 (0x55) 0x34 (0x54) 0x33 (0x53) 0x32 (0x52) 0x31 (0x51) 0x30 (0x50) 0x2F (0x4F) 0x2E (0x4E) 0x2D (0x4D) 0x2C (0x4C) 0x2B (0x4B) 0x2A (0x4A) 0x29 (0x49) 0x28 (0x48) 0x27 (0x47) 0x26 (0x46) 0x25 (0x45) 0x24 (0x44) 0x23 (0x43) 0x22 (0x42) 0x21 (0x41) 0x20(1) (0x40)(1) 0x1F (0x3F) 0x1E (0x3E) 0x1D (0x3D) 0x1C (0x3C) 0x1B (0x3B) 0x1A (0x3A) 0x19 (0x39) 0x18 (0x38) 0x17 (0x37) 0x16 (0x36) 0x15 (0x35) 0x14 (0x34) 0x13 (0x33) 0x12 (0x32) 0x11 (0x31) 0x10 (0x30) 0x0F (0x2F) 0x0E (0x2E) 0x0D (0x2D) 0x0C (0x2C) 0x0B (0x2B) 0x0A (0x2A) 0x09 (0x29) 0x08 (0x28) 0x07 (0x27) 0x06 (0x26) 0x05 (0x25) 0x04 (0x24) 0x03 (0x23) 0x02 (0x22) Name SREG SPH SPL Reserved GICR GIFR TIMSK TIFR SPMCR TWCR MCUCR MCUCSR TCCR0 TCNT0 OSCCAL SFIOR TCCR1A TCCR1B TCNT1H TCNT1L OCR1AH OCR1AL OCR1BH OCR1BL ICR1H ICR1L TCCR2 TCNT2 OCR2 ASSR WDTCR UBRRH UCSRC EEARH EEARL EEDR EECR Reserved Reserved Reserved PORTB DDRB PINB PORTC DDRC PINC PORTD DDRD PIND SPDR SPSR SPCR UDR UCSRA UCSRB UBRRL ACSR ADMUX ADCSRA ADCH ADCL TWDR TWAR Bit 7 I – SP7 INT1 INTF1 OCIE2 OCF2 SPMIE TWINT SE – – Bit 6 T – SP6 INT0 INTF0 TOIE2 TOV2 RWWSB TWEA SM2 – – Bit 5 H – SP5 – – TICIE1 ICF1 – TWSTA SM1 – – Bit 4 S – SP4 – – OCIE1A OCF1A RWWSRE TWSTO SM0 – – Bit 3 V – SP3 – – OCIE1B OCF1B BLBSET TWWC ISC11 WDRF – Bit 2 N SP10 SP2 – – TOIE1 TOV1 PGWRT TWEN ISC10 BORF CS02 Bit 1 Z SP9 SP1 IVSEL – – – PGERS – ISC01 EXTRF CS01 Bit 0 C SP8 SP0 IVCE – TOIE0 TOV0 SPMEN TWIE ISC00 PORF CS00 Page 11 13 13 49, 67 68 72, 102, 122 73, 102, 122 213 171 33, 66 41 72 72 31 Timer/Counter0 (8 Bits) Oscillator Calibration Register – COM1A1 ICNC1 – COM1A0 ICES1 – COM1B1 – – COM1B0 WGM13 ACME FOC1A WGM12 PUD FOC1B CS12 PSR2 WGM11 CS11 PSR10 WGM10 CS10 58, 75, 123, 193 96 100 101 101 101 101 101 101 102 102 Timer/Counter1 – Counter Register High byte Timer/Counter1 – Counter Register Low byte Timer/Counter1 – Output Compare Register A High byte Timer/Counter1 – Output Compare Register A Low byte Timer/Counter1 – Output Compare Register B High byte Timer/Counter1 – Output Compare Register B Low byte Timer/Counter1 – Input Capture Register High byte Timer/Counter1 – Input Capture Register Low byte FOC2 WGM20 COM21 COM20 WGM21 CS22 CS21 CS20 Timer/Counter2 (8 Bits) Timer/Counter2 Output Compare Register – – URSEL URSEL – EEAR7 – – – – UMSEL – EEAR6 – – – – UPM1 – EEAR5 – – WDCE – UPM0 – EEAR4 – USBS – EEAR3 EERIE – EEAR2 EEMWE AS2 WDE TCN2UB WDP2 UCSZ1 OCR2UB WDP1 UBRR[11:8] UCSZ0 – EEAR1 EEWE UCPOL EEAR8 EEAR0 EERE TCR2UB WDP0 117 119 119 119 43 158 156 20 20 20 20 EEPROM Data Register PORTB7 DDB7 PINB7 – – – PORTD7 DDD7 PIND7 SPIF SPIE RXC RXCIE ACD REFS1 ADEN PORTB6 DDB6 PINB6 PORTC6 DDC6 PINC6 PORTD6 DDD6 PIND6 WCOL SPE TXC TXCIE ACBG REFS0 ADSC PORTB5 DDB5 PINB5 PORTC5 DDC5 PINC5 PORTD5 DDD5 PIND5 – DORD UDRE UDRIE ACO ADLAR ADFR PORTB4 DDB4 PINB4 PORTC4 DDC4 PINC4 PORTD4 DDD4 PIND4 – MSTR FE RXEN ACI – ADIF PORTB3 DDB3 PINB3 PORTC3 DDC3 PINC3 PORTD3 DDD3 PIND3 – CPOL DOR TXEN ACIE MUX3 ADIE PORTB2 DDB2 PINB2 PORTC2 DDC2 PINC2 PORTD2 DDD2 PIND2 – CPHA PE UCSZ2 ACIC MUX2 ADPS2 PORTB1 DDB1 PINB1 PORTC1 DDC1 PINC1 PORTD1 DDD1 PIND1 – SPR1 U2X RXB8 ACIS1 MUX1 ADPS1 PORTB0 DDB0 PINB0 PORTC0 DDC0 PINC0 PORTD0 DDD0 PIND0 SPI2X SPR0 MPCM TXB8 ACIS0 MUX0 ADPS0 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 131 131 129 153 154 155 158 194 205 207 208 208 173 SPI Data Register USART I/O Data Register USART Baud Rate Register Low byte ADC Data Register High byte ADC Data Register Low byte Two-wire Serial Interface Data Register TWA6 TWA5 TWA4 TWA3 TWA2 TWA1 TWA0 TWGCE 174 8 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 ATmega8(L) Register Summary (Continued) Address 0x01 (0x21) 0x00 (0x20) Name TWSR TWBR Bit 7 TWS7 Bit 6 TWS6 Bit 5 TWS5 Bit 4 TWS4 Bit 3 TWS3 Bit 2 – Bit 1 TWPS1 Bit 0 TWPS0 Page 173 171 Two-wire Serial Interface Bit Rate Register Notes: 1. Refer to the USART description for details on how to access UBRRH and UCSRC. 2. For compatibility with future devices, reserved bits should be written to zero if accessed. Reserved I/O memory addresses should never be written. 3. Some of the Status Flags are cleared by writing a logical one to them. Note that the CBI and SBI instructions will operate on all bits in the I/O Register, writing a one back into any flag read as set, thus clearing the flag. The CBI and SBI instructions work with registers 0x00 to 0x1F only. 9 2486TS–AVR–05/08 Instruction Set Summary Mnemonics ADD ADC ADIW SUB SUBI SBC SBCI SBIW AND ANDI OR ORI EOR COM NEG SBR CBR INC DEC TST CLR SER MUL MULS MULSU FMUL FMULS FMULSU RJMP IJMP RCALL ICALL RET RETI CPSE CP CPC CPI SBRC SBRS SBIC SBIS BRBS BRBC BREQ BRNE BRCS BRCC BRSH BRLO BRMI BRPL BRGE BRLT BRHS BRHC BRTS BRTC BRVS BRVC Rd,Rr Rd,Rr Rd,Rr Rd,K Rr, b Rr, b P, b P, b s, k s, k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k Operands Rd, Rr Rd, Rr Rdl,K Rd, Rr Rd, K Rd, Rr Rd, K Rdl,K Rd, Rr Rd, K Rd, Rr Rd, K Rd, Rr Rd Rd Rd,K Rd,K Rd Rd Rd Rd Rd Rd, Rr Rd, Rr Rd, Rr Rd, Rr Rd, Rr Rd, Rr k Add two Registers Description Rd ← Rd + Rr Operation Flags Z,C,N,V,H Z,C,N,V,H Z,C,N,V,S Z,C,N,V,H Z,C,N,V,H Z,C,N,V,H Z,C,N,V,H Z,C,N,V,S Z,N,V Z,N,V Z,N,V Z,N,V Z,N,V Z,C,N,V Z,C,N,V,H Z,N,V Z,N,V Z,N,V Z,N,V Z,N,V Z,N,V None Z,C Z,C Z,C Z,C Z,C Z,C None None None None None I None Z, N,V,C,H Z, N,V,C,H Z, N,V,C,H None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None #Clocks 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 1/2/3 1 1 1 1/2/3 1/2/3 1/2/3 1/2/3 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC INSTRUCTIONS Add with Carry two Registers Add Immediate to Word Subtract two Registers Subtract Constant from Register Subtract with Carry two Registers Subtract with Carry Constant from Reg. Subtract Immediate from Word Logical AND Registers Logical AND Register and Constant Logical OR Registers Logical OR Register and Constant Exclusive OR Registers One’s Complement Two’s Complement Set Bit(s) in Register Clear Bit(s) in Register Increment Decrement Test for Zero or Minus Clear Register Set Register Multiply Unsigned Multiply Signed Multiply Signed with Unsigned Fractional Multiply Unsigned Fractional Multiply Signed Fractional Multiply Signed with Unsigned Relative Jump Indirect Jump to (Z) Relative Subroutine Call Indirect Call to (Z) Subroutine Return Interrupt Return Compare, Skip if Equal Compare Compare with Carry Compare Register with Immediate Skip if Bit in Register Cleared Skip if Bit in Register is Set Skip if Bit in I/O Register Cleared Skip if Bit in I/O Register is Set Branch if Status Flag Set Branch if Status Flag Cleared Branch if Equal Branch if Not Equal Branch if Carry Set Branch if Carry Cleared Branch if Same or Higher Branch if Lower Branch if Minus Branch if Plus Branch if Greater or Equal, Signed Branch if Less Than Zero, Signed Branch if Half Carry Flag Set Branch if Half Carry Flag Cleared Branch if T Flag Set Branch if T Flag Cleared Branch if Overflow Flag is Set Branch if Overflow Flag is Cleared Rd ← Rd + Rr + C Rdh:Rdl ← Rdh:Rdl + K Rd ← Rd - Rr Rd ← Rd - K Rd ← Rd - Rr - C Rd ← Rd - K - C Rdh:Rdl ← Rdh:Rdl - K Rd ← Rd • Rr Rd ← Rd • K Rd ← Rd v Rr Rd ← Rd v K Rd ← Rd ⊕ Rr Rd ← 0xFF − Rd Rd ← 0x00 − Rd Rd ← Rd v K Rd ← Rd • (0xFF - K) Rd ← Rd + 1 Rd ← Rd − 1 Rd ← Rd • Rd Rd ← Rd ⊕ Rd Rd ← 0xFF R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr R1:R0 ← Rd x Rr 1 R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) << 1 R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) << 1 PC ← PC + k + 1 PC ← Z PC ← PC + k + 1 PC ← Z PC ← STACK PC ← STACK if (Rd = Rr) PC ← PC + 2 or 3 Rd − Rr Rd − Rr − C Rd − K if (Rr(b)=0) PC ← PC + 2 or 3 if (Rr(b)=1) PC ← PC + 2 or 3 if (P(b)=0) PC ← PC + 2 or 3 if (P(b)=1) PC ← PC + 2 or 3 if (SREG(s) = 1) then PC←PC+k + 1 if (SREG(s) = 0) then PC←PC+k + 1 if (Z = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (Z = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (C = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (C = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (C = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (C = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (N = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (N = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (N ⊕ V= 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (N ⊕ V= 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (H = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (H = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (T = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (T = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (V = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if (V = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1 R1:R0 ← (Rd x Rr) << BRANCH INSTRUCTIONS Mnemonics Operands Description Operation Flags #Clocks 10 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 ATmega8(L) Instruction Set Summary (Continued) BRIE BRID MOV MOVW LDI LD LD LD LD LD LD LDD LD LD LD LDD LDS ST ST ST ST ST ST STD ST ST ST STD STS LPM LPM LPM SPM IN OUT PUSH POP SBI CBI LSL LSR ROL ROR ASR SWAP BSET BCLR BST BLD SEC CLC SEN CLN SEZ CLZ SEI CLI SES CLS SEV CLV SET Rd, P P, Rr Rr Rd P,b P,b Rd Rd Rd Rd Rd Rd s s Rr, b Rd, b Rd, Z Rd, Z+ k k Rd, Rr Rd, Rr Rd, K Rd, X Rd, X+ Rd, - X Rd, Y Rd, Y+ Rd, - Y Rd,Y+q Rd, Z Rd, Z+ Rd, -Z Rd, Z+q Rd, k X, Rr X+, Rr - X, Rr Y, Rr Y+, Rr - Y, Rr Y+q,Rr Z, Rr Z+, Rr -Z, Rr Z+q,Rr k, Rr Branch if Interrupt Enabled Branch if Interrupt Disabled Move Between Registers Copy Register Word Load Immediate Load Indirect Load Indirect and Post-Inc. Load Indirect and Pre-Dec. Load Indirect Load Indirect and Post-Inc. Load Indirect and Pre-Dec. Load Indirect with Displacement Load Indirect Load Indirect and Post-Inc. Load Indirect and Pre-Dec. Load Indirect with Displacement Load Direct from SRAM Store Indirect Store Indirect and Post-Inc. Store Indirect and Pre-Dec. Store Indirect Store Indirect and Post-Inc. Store Indirect and Pre-Dec. Store Indirect with Displacement Store Indirect Store Indirect and Post-Inc. Store Indirect and Pre-Dec. Store Indirect with Displacement Store Direct to SRAM Load Program Memory Load Program Memory Load Program Memory and Post-Inc Store Program Memory In Port Out Port Push Register on Stack Pop Register from Stack Set Bit in I/O Register Clear Bit in I/O Register Logical Shift Left Logical Shift Right Rotate Left Through Carry Rotate Right Through Carry Arithmetic Shift Right Swap Nibbles Flag Set Flag Clear Bit Store from Register to T Bit load from T to Register Set Carry Clear Carry Set Negative Flag Clear Negative Flag Set Zero Flag Clear Zero Flag Global Interrupt Enable Global Interrupt Disable Set Signed Test Flag Clear Signed Test Flag Set Twos Complement Overflow. Clear Twos Complement Overflow Set T in SREG if ( I = 1) then PC ← PC + k + 1 if ( I = 0) then PC ← PC + k + 1 Rd ← Rr Rd+1:Rd ← Rr+1:Rr Rd ← K Rd ← (X) Rd ← (X), X ← X + 1 X ← X - 1, Rd ← (X) Rd ← (Y) Rd ← (Y), Y ← Y + 1 Y ← Y - 1, Rd ← (Y) Rd ← (Y + q) Rd ← (Z) Rd ← (Z), Z ← Z+1 Z ← Z - 1, Rd ← (Z) Rd ← (Z + q) Rd ← (k) (X) ← Rr (X) ← Rr, X ← X + 1 X ← X - 1, (X) ← Rr (Y) ← Rr (Y) ← Rr, Y ← Y + 1 Y ← Y - 1, (Y) ← Rr (Y + q) ← Rr (Z) ← Rr (Z) ← Rr, Z ← Z + 1 Z ← Z - 1, (Z) ← Rr (Z + q) ← Rr (k) ← Rr R0 ← (Z) Rd ← (Z) Rd ← (Z), Z ← Z+1 (Z) ← R1:R0 Rd ← P P ← Rr STACK ← Rr Rd ← STACK I/O(P,b) ← 1 I/O(P,b) ← 0 Rd(n+1) ← Rd(n), Rd(0) ← 0 Rd(n) ← Rd(n+1), Rd(7) ← 0 Rd(0)←C,Rd(n+1)← Rd(n),C←Rd(7) Rd(7)←C,Rd(n)← Rd(n+1),C←Rd(0) Rd(n) ← Rd(n+1), n=0..6 Rd(3..0)←Rd(7..4),Rd(7..4)←Rd(3..0) SREG(s) ← 1 SREG(s) ← 0 T ← Rr(b) Rd(b) ← T C←1 C←0 N←1 N←0 Z←1 Z←0 I←1 I←0 S←1 S←0 V←1 V←0 T←1 None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None Z,C,N,V Z,C,N,V Z,C,N,V Z,C,N,V Z,C,N,V None SREG(s) SREG(s) T None C C N N Z Z I I S S V V T 1/2 1/2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DATA TRANSFER INSTRUCTIONS BIT AND BIT-TEST INSTRUCTIONS Mnemonics Operands Description Operation Flags #Clocks 11 2486TS–AVR–05/08 Instruction Set Summary (Continued) CLT SEH CLH Clear T in SREG Set Half Carry Flag in SREG Clear Half Carry Flag in SREG T←0 H←1 H←0 T H H 1 1 1 MCU CONTROL INSTRUCTIONS NOP SLEEP WDR No Operation Sleep Watchdog Reset (see specific descr. for Sleep function) (see specific descr. for WDR/timer) None None None 1 1 1 12 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 ATmega8(L) Ordering Information Speed (MHz) 8 Power Supply 2.7 - 5.5 Ordering Code ATmega8L-8AU ATmega8L-8PU(2) ATmega8L-8MU(2) ATmega8-16AU(2) ATmega8-16PU(2) ATmega8-16MU(2) (2) Package(1) 32A 28P3 32M1-A 32A 28P3 32M1-A Operation Range Industrial (-40°C to 85°C) Industrial (-40°C to 85°C) 16 4.5 - 5.5 Notes: 1. This device can also be supplied in wafer form. Please contact your local Atmel sales office for detailed ordering information and minimum quantities. 2. Pb-free packaging complies to the European Directive for Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive). Also Halide free and fully Green. Package Type 32A 28P3 32M1-A 32-lead, Thin (1.0 mm) Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP) 28-lead, 0.300” Wide, Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP) 32-pad, 5 x 5 x 1.0 body, Lead Pitch 0.50 mm Quad Flat No-Lead/Micro Lead Frame Package (QFN/MLF) 13 2486TS–AVR–05/08 Packaging Information 32A PIN 1 B PIN 1 IDENTIFIER e E1 E D1 D C 0˚~7˚ A1 L COMMON DIMENSIONS (Unit of Measure = mm) SYMBOL A A1 A2 D D1 E MIN – 0.05 0.95 8.75 6.90 8.75 6.90 0.30 0.09 0.45 NOM – – 1.00 9.00 7.00 9.00 7.00 – – – 0.80 TYP MAX 1.20 0.15 1.05 9.25 7.10 9.25 7.10 0.45 0.20 0.75 Note 2 Note 2 NOTE A2 A Notes: 1. This package conforms to JEDEC reference MS-026, Variation ABA. 2. Dimensions D1 and E1 do not include mold protrusion. Allowable protrusion is 0.25 mm per side. Dimensions D1 and E1 are maximum plastic body size dimensions including mold mismatch. 3. Lead coplanarity is 0.10 mm maximum. E1 B C L e 10/5/2001 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 TITLE 32A, 32-lead, 7 x 7 mm Body Size, 1.0 mm Body Thickness, 0.8 mm Lead Pitch, Thin Profile Plastic Quad Flat Package (TQFP) DRAWING NO. 32A REV. B R 14 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 ATmega8(L) 28P3 D PIN 1 E1 A SEATING PLANE L B1 e E B B2 A1 (4 PLACES) C eB 0º ~ 15º REF SYMBOL A A1 D E E1 B COMMON DIMENSIONS (Unit of Measure = mm) MIN – 0.508 34.544 7.620 7.112 0.381 1.143 0.762 3.175 0.203 – NOM – – – – – – – – – – – MAX 4.5724 – 34.798 8.255 7.493 0.533 1.397 1.143 3.429 0.356 10.160 Note 1 Note 1 NOTE Note: 1. Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold Flash or Protrusion. Mold Flash or Protrusion shall not exceed 0.25 mm (0.010"). B1 B2 L C eB e 2.540 TYP 09/28/01 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 TITLE 28P3, 28-lead (0.300"/7.62 mm Wide) Plastic Dual Inline Package (PDIP) DRAWING NO. 28P3 REV. B R 15 2486TS–AVR–05/08 32M1-A D D1 1 2 3 0 Pin 1 ID E1 E SIDE VIEW TOP VIEW A2 A3 A1 K P D2 A 0.08 C COMMON DIMENSIONS (Unit of Measure = mm) MIN 0.80 – – NOM 0.90 0.02 0.65 0.20 REF 0.18 4.90 4.70 2.95 4.90 4.70 2.95 0.23 5.00 4.75 3.10 5.00 4.75 3.10 0.50 BSC 0.30 – – 0.20 – 0.40 – – 0.50 0.60 12o – 0.30 5.10 4.80 3.25 5.10 4.80 3.25 MAX 1.00 0.05 1.00 NOTE SYMBOL A P Pin #1 Notch (0.20 R) 1 2 3 A1 A2 A3 E2 b K D D1 D2 E b e L E1 E2 e L P BOTTOM VIEW 0 Note: JEDEC Standard MO-220, Fig. 2 (Anvil Singulation), VHHD-2. K 5/25/06 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 TITLE 32M1-A, 32-pad, 5 x 5 x 1.0 mm Body, Lead Pitch 0.50 mm, 3.10 mm Exposed Pad, Micro Lead Frame Package (MLF) DRAWING NO. 32M1-A REV. E R 16 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 ATmega8(L) Errata ATmega8 Rev. D to I The revision letter in this section refers to the revision of the ATmega8 device. • • • • First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer Signature may be Erased in Serial Programming Mode CKOPT Does not Enable Internal Capacitors on XTALn/TOSCn Pins when 32 KHz Oscillator is Used to Clock the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 • Reading EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt request 1. First Analog Comparator conversion may be delayed If the device is powered by a slow rising VCC, the first Analog Comparator conversion will take longer than expected on some devices. Problem Fix / Workaround When the device has been powered or reset, disable then enable theAnalog Comparator before the first conversion. 2. Interrupts may be lost when writing the timer registers in the asynchronous timer If one of the timer registers which is synchronized to the asynchronous timer2 clock is written in the cycle before a overflow interrupt occurs, the interrupt may be lost. Problem Fix / Workaround Always check that the Timer2 Timer/Counter register, TCNT2, does not have the value 0xFF before writing the Timer2 Control Register, TCCR2, or Output Compare Register, OCR2 3. Signature may be Erased in Serial Programming Mode If the signature bytes are read before a chiperase command is completed, the signature may be erased causing the device ID and calibration bytes to disappear. This is critical, especially, if the part is running on internal RC oscillator. Problem Fix / Workaround: Ensure that the chiperase command has exceeded before applying the next command. 4. CKOPT Does not Enable Internal Capacitors on XTALn/TOSCn Pins when 32 KHz Oscillator is Used to Clock the Asynchronous Timer/Counter2 When the internal RC Oscillator is used as the main clock source, it is possible to run the Timer/Counter2 asynchronously by connecting a 32 KHz Oscillator between XTAL1/TOSC1 and XTAL2/TOSC2. But when the internal RC Oscillator is selected as the main clock source, the CKOPT Fuse does not control the internal capacitors on XTAL1/TOSC1 and XTAL2/TOSC2. As long as there are no capacitors connected to XTAL1/TOSC1 and XTAL2/TOSC2, safe operation of the Oscillator is not guaranteed. Problem Fix / Workaround Use external capacitors in the range of 20 - 36 pF on XTAL1/TOSC1 and XTAL2/TOSC2. This will be fixed in ATmega8 Rev. G where the CKOPT Fuse will control internal capacitors also when internal RC Oscillator is selected as main clock source. For ATmega8 Rev. G, CKOPT = 0 (programmed) will enable the internal capacitors on XTAL1 and XTAL2. Customers who want compatibility between Rev. G and older revisions, must ensure that CKOPT is unprogrammed (CKOPT = 1). 5. Reading EEPROM by using ST or STS to set EERE bit triggers unexpected interrupt request. Reading EEPROM by using the ST or STS command to set the EERE bit in the EECR register triggers an unexpected EEPROM interrupt request. 17 2486TS–AVR–05/08 Problem Fix / Workaround Always use OUT or SBI to set EERE in EECR. 18 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 ATmega8(L) Datasheet Revision History Please note that the referring page numbers in this section are referred to this document. The referring revision in this section are referring to the document revision. Changes from Rev. 1. Updated Table 98 on page 240. 2486S- 08/07 to 2. Updated “Ordering Information” on page 292. Rev. 2486T- 05/08 - Commercial Ordering Code removed. - No Pb-free packaging option removed. Changes from Rev. 1. Updated “Features” on page 1. 2486R- 07/07 to Rev. 2486S- 08/07 2. Added “Data Retention” on page 7. 3. Updated “Errata” on page 17. 4. Updated “Slave Mode” on page 129. Changes from Rev. 1. Added text to Table 81 on page 218. 2486Q- 10/06 to Rev. 2486R- 07/07 2. Fixed typo in “Peripheral Features” on page 1. 3. Updated Table 16 on page 42. 4. Updated Table 75 on page 206. 5. Removed redundancy and updated typo in Notes section of “DC Characteristics” on page 242. Changes from Rev. 1. Updated “Timer/Counter Oscillator” on page 32. 2486P- 02/06 to Rev. 2486Q- 10/06 2. Updated “Fast PWM Mode” on page 89. 3. Updated code example in “USART Initialization” on page 138. 4. Updated Table 37 on page 97, Table 39 on page 98, Table 42 on page 117, Table 44 on page 118, and Table 98 on page 240. 5. Updated “Errata” on page 17. Changes from Rev. 1. Added “Resources” on page 7. 2486O-10/04 to Rev. 2486P- 02/06 2. Updated “External Clock” on page 32. 3. Updated “Serial Peripheral Interface – SPI” on page 124. 4. Updated Code Example in “USART Initialization” on page 138. 19 2486TS–AVR–05/08 5. Updated Note in “Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 170. 6. Updated Table 98 on page 240. 7. Updated Note in Table 103 on page 248. 8. Updated “Errata” on page 17. Changes from Rev. 1. Removed to instances of “analog ground”. Replaced by “ground”. 2486N-09/04 to 2. Updated Table 7 on page 29, Table 15 on page 38, and Table 100 on page 244. Rev. 2486O-10/04 3. Updated “Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator” on page 30 with the 1 MHz default value. 4. Table 89 on page 225 and Table 90 on page 225 moved to new section “Page Size” on page 225. 5. Updated descripton for bit 4 in “Store Program Memory Control Register – SPMCR” on page 213. 6. Updated “Ordering Information” on page 13. Changes from Rev. 1. Added note to MLF package in “Pin Configurations” on page 2. 2486M-12/03 to 2. Updated “Internal Voltage Reference Characteristics” on page 42. Rev. 2486N-09/04 3. Updated “DC Characteristics” on page 242. 4. ADC4 and ADC5 support 10-bit accuracy. Document updated to reflect this. Updated features in “Analog-to-Digital Converter” on page 196. Updated “ADC Characteristics” on page 248. 5. Removed reference to “External RC Oscillator application note” from “External RC Oscillator” on page 28. Changes from Rev. 1. Updated “Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator” on page 30. 2486L-10/03 to Rev. 2486M-12/03 Changes from Rev. 1. Removed “Preliminary” and TBDs from the datasheet. 2486K-08/03 to 2. Renamed ICP to ICP1 in the datasheet. Rev. 2486L-10/03 3. Removed instructions CALL and JMP from the datasheet. 4. Updated tRST in Table 15 on page 38, VBG in Table 16 on page 42, Table 100 on page 244 and Table 102 on page 246. 5. Replaced text “XTAL1 and XTAL2 should be left unconnected (NC)” after Table 9 in “Calibrated Internal RC Oscillator” on page 30. Added text regarding XTAL1/XTAL2 and CKOPT Fuse in “Timer/Counter Oscillator” on page 32. 20 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 ATmega8(L) 6. Updated Watchdog Timer code examples in “Timed Sequences for Changing the Configuration of the Watchdog Timer” on page 45. 7. Removed bit 4, ADHSM, from “Special Function IO Register – SFIOR” on page 58. 8. Added note 2 to Figure 103 on page 215. 9. Updated item 4 in the “Serial Programming Algorithm” on page 238. 10. Added tWD_FUSE to Table 97 on page 239 and updated Read Calibration Byte, Byte 3, in Table 98 on page 240. 11. Updated Absolute Maximum Ratings* and DC Characteristics in “Electrical Characteristics” on page 242. Changes from Rev. 1. Updated VBOT values in Table 15 on page 38. 2486J-02/03 to 2. Updated “ADC Characteristics” on page 248. Rev. 2486K-08/03 3. Updated “ATmega8 Typical Characteristics” on page 249. 4. Updated “Errata” on page 17. Changes from Rev. 1. Improved the description of “Asynchronous Timer Clock – clkASY” on page 26. 2486I-12/02 to Rev. 2. Removed reference to the “Multipurpose Oscillator” application note and the “32 kHz 2486J-02/03 Crystal Oscillator” application note, which do not exist. 3. Corrected OCn waveforms in Figure 38 on page 90. 4. Various minor Timer 1 corrections. 5. Various minor TWI corrections. 6. Added note under “Filling the Temporary Buffer (Page Loading)” on page 216 about writing to the EEPROM during an SPM Page load. 7. Removed ADHSM completely. 8. Added section “EEPROM Write during Power-down Sleep Mode” on page 23. 9. Removed XTAL1 and XTAL2 description on page 5 because they were already described as part of “Port B (PB7..PB0) XTAL1/XTAL2/TOSC1/TOSC2” on page 5. 10. Improved the table under “SPI Timing Characteristics” on page 246 and removed the table under “SPI Serial Programming Characteristics” on page 241. 11. Corrected PC6 in “Alternate Functions of Port C” on page 61. 12. Corrected PB6 and PB7 in “Alternate Functions of Port B” on page 58. 13. Corrected 230.4 Mbps to 230.4 kbps under “Examples of Baud Rate Setting” on page 159. 21 2486TS–AVR–05/08 14. Added information about PWM symmetry for Timer 2 in “Phase Correct PWM Mode” on page 113. 15. Added thick lines around accessible registers in Figure 76 on page 169. 16. Changed “will be ignored” to “must be written to zero” for unused Z-pointer bits under “Performing a Page Write” on page 216. 17. Added note for RSTDISBL Fuse in Table 87 on page 223. 18. Updated drawings in “Packaging Information” on page 14. Changes from Rev. 1. Added errata for Rev D, E, and F on page 17. 2486H-09/02 to Rev. 2486I-12/02 Changes from Rev. 1. Changed the Endurance on the Flash to 10,000 Write/Erase Cycles. 2486G-09/02 to Rev. 2486H-09/02 Changes from Rev. 1. Updated Table 103, “ADC Characteristics,” on page 248. 2486F-07/02 to Rev. 2486G-09/02 Changes from Rev. 1. Changes in “Digital Input Enable and Sleep Modes” on page 55. 2486E-06/02 to 2. Addition of OCS2 in “MOSI/OC2 – Port B, Bit 3” on page 59. Rev. 2486F-07/02 3. The following tables have been updated: Table 51, “CPOL and CPHA Functionality,” on page 132, Table 59, “UCPOL Bit Settings,” on page 158, Table 72, “Analog Comparator Multiplexed Input(1),” on page 195, Table 73, “ADC Conversion Time,” on page 200, Table 75, “Input Channel Selections,” on page 206, and Table 84, “Explanation of Different Variables used in Figure 103 and the Mapping to the Z-pointer,” on page 221. 4. Changes in “Reading the Calibration Byte” on page 234. 5. Corrected Errors in Cross References. Changes from Rev. 1. Updated Some Preliminary Test Limits and Characterization Data 2486D-03/02 to The following tables have been updated: Rev. 2486E-06/02 Table 15, “Reset Characteristics,” on page 38, Table 16, “Internal Voltage Reference Characteristics,” on page 42, DC Characteristics on page 242, Table , “ADC Characteristics,” on page 248. 2. Changes in External Clock Frequency Added the description at the end of “External Clock” on page 32. Added period changing data in Table 99, “External Clock Drive,” on page 244. 3. Updated TWI Chapter 22 ATmega8(L) 2486TS–AVR–05/08 ATmega8(L) More details regarding use of the TWI bit rate prescaler and a Table 65, “TWI Bit Rate Prescaler,” on page 173. Changes from Rev. 1. Updated Typical Start-up Times. 2486C-03/02 to The following tables has been updated: Rev. 2486D-03/02 Table 5, “Start-up Times for the Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection,” on page 28, Table 6, “Start-up Times for the Low-frequency Crystal Oscillator Clock Selection,” on page 28, Table 8, “Start-up Times for the External RC Oscillator Clock Selection,” on page 29, and Table 12, “Start-up Times for the External Clock Selection,” on page 32. 2. Added “ATmega8 Typical Characteristics” on page 249. Changes from Rev. 1. Updated TWI Chapter. 2486B-12/01 to More details regarding use of the TWI Power-down operation and using the TWI as Master with low TWBRR values are added into the datasheet. Rev. 2486C-03/02 Added the note at the end of the “Bit Rate Generator Unit” on page 170. Added the description at the end of “Address Match Unit” on page 170. 2. Updated Description of OSCCAL Calibration Byte. In the datasheet, it was not explained how to take advantage of the calibration bytes for 2, 4, and 8 MHz Oscillator selections. This is now added in the following sections: Improved description of “Oscillator Calibration Register – OSCCAL” on page 31 and “Calibration Byte” on page 225. 3. Added Some Preliminary Test Limits and Characterization Data. Removed some of the TBD’s in the following tables and pages: Table 3 on page 26, Table 15 on page 38, Table 16 on page 42, Table 17 on page 44, “TA = -40×C to 85×C, VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V (unless otherwise noted)” on page 242, Table 99 on page 244, and Table 102 on page 246. 4. Updated Programming Figures. Figure 104 on page 226 and Figure 112 on page 237 are updated to also reflect that AVCC must be connected during Programming mode. 5. Added a Description on how to Enter Parallel Programming Mode if RESET Pin is Disabled or if External Oscillators are Selected. Added a note in section “Enter Programming Mode” on page 228. 23 2486TS–AVR–05/08 Headquarters Atmel Corporation 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95131 USA Tel: 1(408) 441-0311 Fax: 1(408) 487-2600 International Atmel Asia Room 1219 Chinachem Golden Plaza 77 Mody Road Tsimshatsui East Kowloon Hong Kong Tel: (852) 2721-9778 Fax: (852) 2722-1369 Atmel Europe Le Krebs 8, Rue Jean-Pierre Timbaud BP 309 78054 Saint-Quentin-enYvelines Cedex France Tel: (33) 1-30-60-70-00 Fax: (33) 1-30-60-71-11 Atmel Japan 9F, Tonetsu Shinkawa Bldg. 1-24-8 Shinkawa Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0033 Japan Tel: (81) 3-3523-3551 Fax: (81) 3-3523-7581 Product Contact Web Site www.atmel.com Technical Support avr@atmel.com Sales Contact www.atmel.com/contacts Literature Requests www.atmel.com/literature Disclaimer: T he information in this document is provided in connection with Atmel products. No license, express or implied, by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property right is granted by this document or in connection with the sale of Atmel products. EXCEPT AS SET FORTH IN ATMEL’S TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALE LOCATED ON ATMEL’S WEB SITE, ATMEL ASSUMES NO LIABILITY WHATSOEVER AND DISCLAIMS ANY EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY WARRANTY RELATING TO ITS PRODUCTS INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL ATMEL BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE, SPECIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR LOSS OF INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THIS DOCUMENT, EVEN IF ATMEL HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 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This note was uploaded on 12/13/2009 for the course ECE 18100 taught by Professor Williams during the Fall '07 term at Carnegie Mellon.

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