microprocessors

microprocessors - Microprocessors and Embedded Systems...

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Unformatted text preview: Microprocessors and Embedded Systems 18-100 S09 A Modern Computer CPU Northbridge Southbridge Display RAM Graphics Card SATA Interface Hard Drive USB Interface Keyboard Mouse Other Gadgets Network Interface LAN Worldwide Microprocessor Sales Processors for desktop PCs (32-bit) make up smallest portion of sales Most processors sold are 8-bit CPUs for embedded systems 17% 64% 12% 7% 4-bit 8-bit 16-bit 32-bit [Source: WSTS 2001] Your Processor Atmel ATmega 8 8-bit datapath Clock up to 16MHz 8KiB Program Memory 1KiB Data Memory ~$3.00 each System Bus Program Memory (Flash) Data Memory (RAM) Program Counter Instruction Register Instruction Decoder Stack Pointer R0 R1 R30 R31 Register File Status Register CPU Core Control Lines Port B Interface Port C Interface ADC Port D Interface PB0PB7 PC0PC6 PD0PD7 ALU Program Memory Stores the actual machine code for your program Can write to this via external interface to get your code onto the chip Retains data when chip is powered off 4096 16-bits = 8KiB of space (address 0x00000x0FFF) Program Memory (Flash) Data Memory Stores the data your program is manipulating while running (variables, arrays, etc) Data in RAM is lost when the chip is powered off Also called SRAM (S indicating the speciFc type of this RAM) 1024 8-bits = 1KiB of space (addresses 0x00600x045) Data Memory (RAM) Program Counter Allows the CPU to keep track of where it is in the program Contains the address (in Fash) of the next instruction to execute Each time an instruction is executed, this is updated automatically Programmer can also manipulate this via jump/branch/call instructions Program Counter Instruction Register...
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microprocessors - Microprocessors and Embedded Systems...

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