GEL 107 (6) - GEL107: PALEOBIOLOGY Phylogenetic Tree...

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1 GEL107: PALEOBIOLOGY Lecture 7: Phylogeny Reconstruction Phylogenetic Tree Phylogenetic Hypothesis Phylogram Cladogram, ML tree, NJ tree (depending on the method) AF BCDE B is closer to A than to C or D + E + F B + A is closer to C than to D + E + F A + B + C is the sister group of D + E + F Ancestor Why are family tree important? How do we use a tree to help group organisms together? How does parsimony work? What are basic tree terminologies? What data and methods do we use to compute a family tree? A family tree provides a framework for evolutionary discussions Evolutionary “stages”
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2 A B C D E A B C D E Why are family tree important? How do we use a tree to help group organisms together? How does parsimony work? What are basic tree terminologies? What data and methods do we use to compute a family tree? Node 5 Nodes Internode 5 Nodes 4 Internodes Root 5 Nodes 4 Internodes 6 (External) Branches (Terminal) (Vertices) (Internal branches, Internal edges, stems) (Edges)
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3 Any Node is Rotatable Any Node is Rotatable Any Node is Rotatable BUSH LADDER SYMMETRICAL PECTINATE A B D C Ancestor B is closer to A than to C + D A B D C Unrooted Tree Outgroup Outgroup
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4 ABCD B is closer to C + D than to A Ancestor Derived Basal S a u r o p s id Basal Sauropsid Fin Fin Fin Limb Limb
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GEL 107 (6) - GEL107: PALEOBIOLOGY Phylogenetic Tree...

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