The formation of a bipolar world - I. The formation of a...

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I. The formation of a bipolar world A. The cold war in Europe 1. Postwar Europe divided into competing political, military, economic blocs a. Western Europe U.S. allies: parliamentary governments, capitalist economies b. Eastern Europe dominated by Soviet Union, communist governments 2. Germany divided east and west in 1949 a. Soviets refused to withdraw from eastern Germany after World War II b. Allied sectors reunited 1947-1948, Berlin remained divided as well 3. Berlin blockade and airlift, 1948-1949 a. Soviet closed roads, trains, tried to strangle West Berlin into submission b. Britain and United States kept city supplied with round-the-clock airlift c. After embargo against Soviet satellites, Soviets backed down and ended blockade 4. The Berlin Wall, 1961 a. 1949-1961, flood of refugees from East to West Germany, East to West Berlin b. Soviet solution: a wall of barbed wire through the city fortified the border c. Former Allied nations objected but did not risk a full conflict over the wall 5. Nuclear arms race: terrifying proliferation of nuclear weapons by both sides a. NATO and Warsaw Treaty Organization amassed huge weapons stockpiles b. By 1960s USSR reached military parity with United States c. By 1970 both superpowers acquired MAD, "mutually assured destruction" B. Confrontations in Korea and Cuba 1. The Korea War, 1951-1953 a. Korea divided at 38 th parallel in 1948; U.S. ally in south, Soviet ally in north b. North Korean troops crossed the 38 th parallel and captured Seoul, June 1950 c. U.S. and UN troops pushed back North Korean troops to Chinese border d. Chinese troops came in, pushed U.S. forces and their allies back in the south e. Both sides agreed to a cease-fire in July 1953, again at 38 th parallel 2. Globalization of containment a. Western fears of an international communist conspiracy, which must be contained b. Creation of SEATO, an Asian counterpart of NATO c. The "domino theory": if one country falls to communism, others will follow 3. Cuba: nuclear flashpoint a. Castro's revolutionary force overthrew dictator Batista in 1959 b. Castro seized U.S. properties, killed or exiled thousands of political opponents c. United States cut off Cuban sugar imports, imposed export embargo d. Castro accepted Soviet massive economic aid and arms shipments 4. Bay of Pigs fiasco, April 1961 a. CIA-sponsored invasion of Cuba failed b. Diminished U.S. prestige in Latin America 5. Cuban missile crisis, October 1962 a. Soviet deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba, aimed at United States; claimed Cuban defense b. Kennedy blockaded Cuba, demanded removal; two tense weeks c. Khrushchev backed down; Kennedy pledged not to overthrow Castro C. Cold war societies 1. Domestic containment a. U.S. leaders held families to be best defense against communism b. Women discouraged from working, should stay home and raise kids
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2009 for the course BUSINESS bus 203c taught by Professor Milankas. during the Spring '09 term at American University in Bulgaria.

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The formation of a bipolar world - I. The formation of a...

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