WW I - I II The drift toward war A Nationalist aspirations 1 Nationalism spread by the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars a Self-determination

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I. The drift toward war A. Nationalist aspirations 1. Nationalism spread by the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars a. Self-determination suggested that each ethnic group had a right to a sovereign state b. Concept was ignored or opposed by dynastic powers c. Considerable nationalistic tensions in Ottoman, Hapsburg, and Russian empires 2. Slavic nationalism: stressed kinship of all Slavic peoples a. Ottoman empire shrank as first Greece, then others, gained independence b. Serbs of Austria-Hungary sought unification with independent Serbia c. Russians promoted Pan-Slavism in Austria-Hungarian empire d. Germany backed Austria-Hungary to fight ethnic nationalism B. National rivalries 1. The naval race between Germany and Britain increased tensions a. Germany's rapid industrialization threatened British economic predominance b. Both states built huge iron battleships, called dreadnoughts 2. Colonial disputes of the late nineteenth century a. Germany unified in 1871; came late to the colonial race b. German resentment and antagonism toward both France and Britain c. France and Germany nearly fought over Morocco in 1905 d. Balkan wars (1912-13) further strained European diplomatic relations 3. Public opinion supported national rivalries a. Attitudes of aggressive patriotism among European citizens b. Leaders under pressure to be aggressive, to take risks C. Understandings and alliances 1. Rival systems of alliance obligated allies to come to one another's defense 2. The Central Powers a. Germany and Austria-Hungary formed a Dual Alliance 1879 b. In fear of France, Italy joined the Dual Alliance in 1882, thus, the Triple Alliance c. Ottoman empire loosely affiliated with Germany 3. The Allies a. Britain, France, and Russia formed the Triple Entente, or the Allies b. Shifting series of treaties ended with a military pact, 1914 4. War plans: each power poised and prepared for war a. Military leaders devised inflexible military plans and timetables b. France's Plan XVII focused on offensive maneuvers and attacks c. Germany's Schlieffen plan: swift attack on France, then defensive against Russia II. Global war A. The guns of August: triggered a chain reaction 1. June 1914, Austrian Archduke assassinated by Serbian nationalist 2. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, July 28 3. Russia mobilized troops to defend its Serbian ally against the Central Powers 4. Germany: July 31, sent ultimatums to Russia and France, which were ignored 5. Germany declared war on Russia and France, invaded Belgium to reach France 6. August 4: to protect Belgium's neutrality, Britain declared war on Germany B. Mutual butchery 1. War was greeted with enthusiasm on all sides; was expected to be brief
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This note was uploaded on 12/14/2009 for the course BUSINESS bus 203c taught by Professor Milankas. during the Spring '09 term at American University in Bulgaria.

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WW I - I II The drift toward war A Nationalist aspirations 1 Nationalism spread by the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars a Self-determination

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