WW II - I. II. Origins of World War II A. Japan's war in...

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I. Origins of World War II A. Japan's war in China 1. Global conflict began with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, 1931 a. League of Nations condemned action; Japan simply withdrew from league b. 1937, Japan launched full-scale invasion of China 2. The Rape of Nanjing characterized war waged against civilians a. Aerial bombing of Shanghai b. In Nanjing, widespread rape and slaughter 3. Chinese resistance movement a. Nationalists and communists formed "united front" against Japanese b. Unable to effectively work together, they conducted guerilla attacks c. Communists gained popular support throughout war 4. Japan's Triple Pact with Germany and Italy, 1940; neutrality pact with Soviet Union, 1941 B. European aggression 1. Italy after the Great War a. Italians felt slighted at the Paris Peace Conference b. Italian losses high in World War I; economy never recovered c. Mussolini promised national glory, empire d. Annexed Libya; invaded Ethiopia (1935-1936), killed 250,000 Ethiopians 2. Germany: deep resentment at Treaty of Versailles a. Harsh terms: reparations, economic restrictions b. Former Allies inclined not to object when Hitler violated terms of the treaty c. Hitler blamed Jews, communists, liberals for losing the war and accepting the treaty 3. After 1933, Hitler moved to ignore terms of peace settlement a. Withdrew from League of Nations, 1933 b. Rebuilt military, air force; reinstated draft c. Took back the Rhineland, 1936, then annexed Austria, 1938 d. Reclaimed Sudetenland from western Czechoslovakia, 1938 e. At each step, France and Britain did nothing to stop him 4. The Munich Conference: Peace for our time? a. In 1938, Germany "appeased" by taking Sudetenland, promised to stop there b. Britain and France desperate to avoid war c. 1939, violating Munich agreement, Hitler seized most of Czechoslovakia 5. Russian-German Treaty of Non-Aggression, 1939, shocked the world II. Total war: the world under fire A. Blitzkreig: Germany conquers Europe 1. Strategy of a "lightening war": unannounced, surprise attacks 2. September 1939, Nazi invasion of Poland a. Poland defeated in one month b. Divided between Germany and Soviet Union 3. Battle of the Atlantic: German U-boats (submarines) against British ship convoys 4. Spring 1940, the fall of France a. Nazis swiftly conquered Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands b. French signed an armistice in June 1940 c. Italy entered the war on Nazis' side 5. The battle of Britain a. Germans' strategy to defeat Britain solely through air attacks b. Aerial bombing killed forty thousand British civilians; Royal Air Force prevented defeat c. Summer 1941, Germany also controlled Balkans and North Africa B. The German invasion of the Soviet Union
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WW II - I. II. Origins of World War II A. Japan's war in...

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