Lab_Manual - University of Pennsylvania: Department of...

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University of Pennsylvania: Department of Physics Lab Manual 2006 1 IntroLab Manual ReadMe BEFORE YOU PRINT THIS MATERIAL To avoid printing the entire document, specify the page range in the Print \ Options window. Page numbers are shown in the bottom of the Acrobat window while viewing the manual. Check the lab website home page for notices of updates frequently.
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University of Pennsylvania: Department of Physics Lab Manual 2006 2 Lab Manual Table of Contents Section 1: Introduction 1.1 Introduction to the Labs. ......................................................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Writing Physics Lab Reports. .................................................................................................................................. 5 1.3 Reporting Results in the Laboratory. ...................................................................................................................... 6 1.4 Making Graphs . ...................................................................................................................................................... 8 General Guidelines for Graphs . ............................................................................................................................... 8 Graph Presentation. .................................................................................................................................................. 8 Least Squares Fitting. ............................................................................................................................................. 11 1.5 Linearizing Data . .................................................................................................................................................. 13 The Dial Caliper . ......................................................................................................................................................... 15 The Micrometer. .......................................................................................................................................................... 16 Photogates and what they are good for. ....................................................................................................................... 18 The Sonic Ranger . ....................................................................................................................................................... 21 Introduction to the Oscilloscope. ................................................................................................................................. 26 Error Table of Contents/Definitions . ........................................................................................................................... 35 2.1 Types of Error. ....................................................................................................................................................... 36 2.2 Precision vs. Accuracy. .......................................................................................................................................... 38 2.3 Writing Experimental Numbers: Significant Figures and Scientific Notation. ...................................................... 39 2.4 Uncertainty of Measurements. ............................................................................................................................... 40 2.5 Averaging . ............................................................................................................................................................. 41 2.6 Averaging and Uncertainty for Large Data Sets. ................................................................................................... 42 2.7 Standard Deviation . ............................................................................................................................................... 44 2.8 Standard Deviation of the Mean. ........................................................................................................................... 44 Example: Calculating the mean, the standard deviation, and the standard deviation of the mean. ....................... 45 Formulae for calculating standard deviation and uncertainty . .............................................................................. 46 Summary Tables for Error Propagation Rules. ...................................................................................................... 47 2.9 Addition and Subtraction. ...................................................................................................................................... 48 2.10 Multiplication and Division. ................................................................................................................................ 48 2.11 Percent Uncertainties. .......................................................................................................................................... 49 2.12 Multiplication by a known constant. .................................................................................................................... 49 2.13 Functional Error: Propagation of errors with functions. ...................................................................................... 50 2.14 An Example of Propagation of Errors . ................................................................................................................ 51 2.15 Another Error Propagation Example . .................................................................................................................. 52 2.16 Propagation of Error Using the Values of Uncertainty. ....................................................................................... 54 2.17 Estimation of Uncertainty by Multiplying the High and Low Values of the Factors . ......................................... 54
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University of Pennsylvania: Department of Physics Lab Manual 2006 3 1.1 Introduction to the Labs Where…. . Labs are located on the third floor of DRL, in the north wing and west wing. You may meet in a different room each week. The specific lab rooms are listed on two bulletin boards located next to 3N18 and at the intersection of the west wing and the center corridor next to 3W5. For the first week only, sections that have more than 14 students enrolled will have one room listed. When everyone arrives, the TAs will divide the class and half will go to another room. Lab Website. .. The website for the Undergraduate Labs is www.physics.upenn.edu/~uglabs It is listed on the Physics homepage (under Academics/UNDERGRADUATE/Physics and Astronomy Courses/ Undergraduate Labs). Your lab manual, lab schedule, pre-labs, video demos, registration information and other announcements are all here. When… The lab "week" is different for different courses. For that reason, the date given for each lab in the Master Experiment Schedule on-line is the first day in the lab week cycle, and the other sections all do the same lab until the last day of the cycle. There will be a copy of the master schedule on the bulletin boards next to 3W5 and 3N18.
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Lab_Manual - University of Pennsylvania: Department of...

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