Angiosperms: Figures 29.9, 29.10, 29.12. Correction: 29.5 refers to Gymnosperms
Plant Anatomy and Reproduction: Figures 34.1, 34.2, 34.4, 34.6, 34.11, 34.12, 34.17, 34.23 and 35.9.
Carnivorous and parasitic plants: Figures 36.11 and 36.12
Plant stresses: Section 39.3
Biomes: Section 52.3, pages 1116-1128 and Section 52.5, pages 1135-1136
29.1 How did seed plants become today's dominant vegetation?
Only seed plants show
, producing wood.
The surviving groups of seed plants are the
All seed plants are
and their gametophytes are much smaller than, and
dependent on, their sporophytes.
consists of the seed plant megagametophyte and the
protects it. The ovule develops into a seed.
, the microgametophytes, do not require liquid water to perform their
emerges from the pollen grain and
elongates to deliver gametes to the megagametophyte. Pollen grains are enclosed in
highly resistant sporopollenin walls.
Seeds are well protected, and they are often capable of long periods of dormancy,
germinating when conditions are favorable.
29.2 What are the major groups of gymnosperms?
The extant gymnosperms may be a clade, as are at least three of the four gymnosperm
The gymnosperm clades are the
most abundant gymnosperms.
The megaspores of pines are produced in
, and microspores are produced in
. Pollen reaches the megasporangium by way of the
, an opening in the
integument of the ovule.